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HIS101H5 (20)
Chapter 14

HIS Chapter 14.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Mairi Cowan

Chapter 14: • Crusades- Christian holy wars directed mainly against Muslims, heralding a resurgence of Christian West CONFLICT BETWEEN ISLAMAND EUROPE: • West’s resurgence began in 11 century • Great Schism of 1054L cutting off Roman popes from Eastern Christianity, freed them to focus on strengthening their supremacy in the West • Seljuk conquest of WestAsia leads to Muslims and Christian conflicts Christian and Muslims in Iberian: • Turks took control in the East Christians were moving against Muslims in Iberia • Reconquista – reconquers of Iberian by Christian • Forces led by Castile and Aragon, Christian expel Muslims from Iberia • They gained connections with Iberian Muslims enhance Western technology and learning First Crusade (1096-1099): • Pope wants crusade to take Holy Land and end strife in Europe • Preached “It is God’s will” • Italy, France, Germany – assembled • Success captured Jerusalem • Muslims response: retaliatory attacks – reconquered one of the crusader states Second Crusade (1147-1149): • Led by Pope Eugenius • Lost • Few decades later, lost more ground • Muslims under Salah al-Din retake most of the Holy Land – First Crusade undone Third Crusade (1189-1192): • Planned as a multipronged and sea assault • Beat Salah in many battles but fail to retake Holy Land Fourth Crusade (1202-1204): • Pillages Constantinople and ousts Byzantine ruler • Salah died • Reunited W and E Christian • Diverted it against Constantinople – Later Crusades: target other Christians not aligned with Rome Islamic Impact on Western Commerce and Culture: • Crusades ultimately fail to meet original goals • Christianity widen and spilt • Muslims – control holy land • Increased connections with other cultures expand European horizons • Growth of European credit and banking – they boosted Western commerce, helping Italian • Exposing Europeans textile, spices: Indian, China, Indonesia = West voyages of exploration • Cane sugar from WAsia and NAfrica – prompted Europeans sugar plantation • Reconquista exposed Europe to the idea of eminent Muslim scholars • Exposure to Muslim scholarship advances Western learning o West – algebra, Arabic numerals, Egyptian astronomy • Exposure to technologies from Muslims advances Western wealth and power o Water mills, windmills, paper production, navigational innovation, gunpowder weapons o Arabic origins of numerous Western words:- cotton, coffee, sugar, tariff, musket admiral, algebra, zero HIGH MIDDLEAGES: • The era surrounding the crusades known in the West as the High MiddleAges (1050 to 1300) • AgriculturalAdvances: o Euorpe weather warm – more cultivation – clearing swamps and forests o Plows made of wood and iron o Water mills and wind wil
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