• The Maya: (Mexico and Guatelma)
• Aztec: Central Mexico
• Capital: Tenochtitlan (city in the Lake)
• Chinampas large platforms of mud and plants floating in the lake on which crops were grown
• cargo moved within Tenochtitlán as well as between the city and its surrounding countryside by a
• Aztec religion provides mechanism of social control
• Comic missions theory- that justified a program of human sacrifice
o The sun, source of all heat, llight and life grows waery during its journey
o This theiry justitifes Aztec expansion
• Founded by blood
• Develops a complex social stratitication
• Emperor a non hereditary position
• Priests leading generals and political officials spent moneyon everything expect
• Top of scoeity was ruling class or Tecuhtli
• Pochtea – the merchant caste
• Toteca – caste of artisans
• Macehualtin – commoners
• Tlatlacotin – slaves
• Based on bad conduct rather than race
• Develop a lega; system based on punishment
• Used cosmic mission theory – for law
• Practices sphistaicted medical procedures
• Concepts of the afterlife reinforce the cosmic mission theory
• Centre of empire was Cuzco • Empire of four quarters
• Tahuantin –Suyu – made own language
• Mitima - The process of assimilation by resettling and integrating a conquered population into the
• Sapa Inca exercises enormous power , even after death
• Inca runners carried messages along an impressive system of roads and bridges in quipu
• Inca gold llama
o Greatest accomplishments were figuring out how to live.
o They were important because of their possession of precious metals.
o Sapa Inca/Inca, Quechua, Andean
• Andean: regional
• Inca: Ruler
• Lived in Cuzco Valley, Peru area
• Quick and sweeping rise to empire
• Within 100 years of survival, became largest state in Columbia
• Population was 6-12 million (around 10-12 million according to researchers)
• Cuzco, biggest city in empire, was more than 3000 feet higher than sea level.
• Very cold, frequent snow and frost
• Rainfall, highly erratic
• Altitude sickness: high altitude
• Middle of high mountains
• Communication system: paved roads (Over 40,000 kilometers of paved roads)
• In caves, bridges, etc.
• Food stores and outposts for survival.
• Runners kilometer away from each other. Ran a kilometer and gave message to next
• Used quipu (knotted strings) with message encoded, or memorized
• Process of resettlement was called mitima
• Local leaders invited to pay homage to Inca
• Empire grew through invitation.
• Cuzco most important: in the middle of four cities (they believed it was the center of the
• Many buildings still survive today.
• Chief structure: enormous temple (Temple of the Sun)
• Temple of the Sun: Covered in plated sheets of gold (temple to Sun god)
• Quinoa, maize (lower altitudes), chichi, llamas, potato,
• Maize: form of beer or transported up. (Grew in lower altitudes)
• Terraced fields to grow potatoes (most important crop) • Taclla: fertilization system
• Chuño: Dried potato (still contains most nutrient content)
o Used to feed officials and as emergency stockpile.
• Mita: tribute in the form of work.
• Every adult was expected to contribute labor to the state.
• Shear livestock, fight in military, textiles, weave cloth, farming, etc.
• Harvesting of crops also important to mita.
• Food was a safety net for emergencies like sick people, starvation, etc.
• Resentment fostered because of it, but it provided safety.
• Spanish invasion in Huayna Cápac was Inca leader
• Francisco Pizarro was Spanish leader
o Made several expeditions
o At first he failed, but he succeeded in gathering info about Inca political system
o Social strife was beginning to affect Inca
o Inca leader died from disease (possibly smallpox) and didn’t leave a specifi