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Chapter 16

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Mairi Cowan

Chapter 16: • The Maya: (Mexico and Guatelma) • Aztec: Central Mexico Aztec: • Capital: Tenochtitlan (city in the Lake) • Chinampas ­ large platforms of mud and plants floating in the lake on which crops were grown • cargo moved within Tenochtitlán as well as between the city and its surrounding countryside by a  canoe • Aztec religion provides mechanism of social control • Comic missions theory- that justified a program of human sacrifice o The sun, source of all heat, llight and life grows waery during its journey o This theiry justitifes Aztec expansion • Founded by blood • Develops a complex social stratitication • Emperor a non hereditary position • Priests leading generals and political officials spent moneyon everything expect themselves • Top of scoeity was ruling class or Tecuhtli • Pochtea – the merchant caste • Toteca – caste of artisans • Macehualtin – commoners • Tlatlacotin – slaves • Based on bad conduct rather than race • Develop a lega; system based on punishment • Used cosmic mission theory – for law • Practices sphistaicted medical procedures • Concepts of the afterlife reinforce the cosmic mission theory Inca Empire: • Centre of empire was Cuzco • Empire of four quarters • Tahuantin –Suyu – made own language • Mitima - The process of assimilation by resettling and integrating a conquered population into the  Inca empire • Sapa Inca exercises enormous power , even after death • Inca runners carried messages along an impressive system of roads and bridges in quipu • Inca gold llama o Greatest accomplishments were figuring out how to live. o They were important because of their possession of precious metals. o Sapa Inca/Inca, Quechua, Andean • Andean: regional • Quechua: • Inca: Ruler • Lived in Cuzco Valley, Peru area • Quick and sweeping rise to empire • Within 100 years of survival, became largest state in Columbia • Population was 6-12 million (around 10-12 million according to researchers) • Cuzco, biggest city in empire, was more than 3000 feet higher than sea level. • Very cold, frequent snow and frost • Rainfall, highly erratic • Altitude sickness: high altitude • Middle of high mountains • Communication system: paved roads (Over 40,000 kilometers of paved roads) • In caves, bridges, etc. • Food stores and outposts for survival. • Runners kilometer away from each other. Ran a kilometer and gave message to next messenger. • Used quipu (knotted strings) with message encoded, or memorized • Process of resettlement was called mitima • Local leaders invited to pay homage to Inca • Empire grew through invitation. • Cuzco most important: in the middle of four cities (they believed it was the center of the universe) • Many buildings still survive today. • Chief structure: enormous temple (Temple of the Sun) • Temple of the Sun: Covered in plated sheets of gold (temple to Sun god) • Quinoa, maize (lower altitudes), chichi, llamas, potato, • Maize: form of beer or transported up. (Grew in lower altitudes) • Terraced fields to grow potatoes (most important crop) • Taclla: fertilization system • Chuño: Dried potato (still contains most nutrient content) o Used to feed officials and as emergency stockpile. • Mita: tribute in the form of work. • Every adult was expected to contribute labor to the state. • Shear livestock, fight in military, textiles, weave cloth, farming, etc. • Harvesting of crops also important to mita. • Food was a safety net for emergencies like sick people, starvation, etc. • Resentment fostered because of it, but it provided safety. • Spanish invasion in Huayna Cápac was Inca leader • Francisco Pizarro was Spanish leader o Made several expeditions o At first he failed, but he succeeded in gathering info about Inca political system o Social strife was beginning to affect Inca o Inca leader died from disease (possibly smallpox) and didn’t leave a specifi
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