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Malavika Kasturi

Nov 21 Notes The Dilemmas of Nationalism in Postcolonial South Asia 1 The Legacies of Partition for State Formation and Identity1A The Legaciessettlement of Partition Economicadministrative disparities inequalities In the aftermath of partition a huge population exchange occurred between the two newly formed states About 145 million people crossed the borders The newly formed governments were completely unequipped to deal with migrations of such staggering magnitude and massive violence and slaughter occurred on both sides of the borderAggressive state sponsored nationalism unresolved tensions Because independence was declared prior to the actual Partition it was up to the new governments of India and Pakistan to keep public order No large population movements were contemplated the plan called for safeguards for minorities on both sides of the new border It was a task at which both states failed There was a complete breakdown of law and order many died in riots massacre or just from the hardships of their flight to safetyConflicted relationship between community citizenshipnation Because of partition there was conflict on refugees nationality and communities Because no one Muslims were accepted in India and Sikhs and Hindus in PakistanMovements of dissidencedisagreeindependence selective national integration ethnicregional identities1B Democracy and Authoritarianism dictatorship194771India secular separate from religion democratic republic Congress partyNehru Indira Gandhi Prime Minister Nehru led the Congress to major election victories in 1957 and 1962 The Parliament passed extensive reforms that increased the legal rights of women in Hindu society and further legislated against caste discrimination and untouchability Nehru advocated a strong initiative to enrol Indias children to complete primary education and thousands of schools colleges and institutions of advanced learning such as the Indian Institutes of Technology were founded across the nation In 1971 Indira Gandhi and her Congress R were returned to power with a massively increased majorityPakistan military ruleAlthough Pakistan was founded as a democracy after the independence of the India from British Raj the military has remained one of the countrys most powerful institutions and has on occasion overthrown democratically elected governments on the basis of mismanagement and corruption Successive governments have made sure that the military was consulted before they took key decisions especially when those decisions related to the Kashmir Conflict East Pakistan Bangladesh 1971 IndoPakistani War of 1971 After India announced support for the Bengalis in East Pakistan Pakistan launched air strikes against India India eventually captured 13000 square kilometres of Pakistans territory which it later returned by
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