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week 1 and 2 readings.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS330H5
Professor
Petrakos
Semester
Fall

Description
Week 1 Readings Kinsbruner Ch 23Spanish American Independence movements by product of Napoleonic seizure of the Spanish throne in 1808 when Ferdinand was restored to throne in 1814 many colonists sought more formal independence They could not accomadate the growing economies after couple years of self government and more freeom there was growing independence movements Four causes of Spanish American Independence look at the first three causes which led Americans MirandaOHiggins to become advocates of independence The Enlightment th18 century rationalism based not on the study of revelationthe ancient didactic tracts but on the direct observation of nature The movement didnt agree on things politics strong support for limited monarchy and enlightene despotism but also republicanism representative governmentthe protection of individual rights Some liked Lockes view of property and Rousseaus concept Liberal constitutions ththof 18 19 century liked Locke Enlightment provided an context to view the fall of the empire and rise of new nations because enlightenment cause many alterations to the imperial system it entere Spain Bourbon Dynasty two broad thstages are evident after a until the middle of the 18 centuryits prominent figure was the Beneictine Monk Benito Jeronimo Feijoob entered to the end of the century and its most prominent and influential figure was Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos The political differences between these periods first accepted the concept of limited monarchy second sought to strengthen royal prerogatives Second phase of Spanish Enlightenment reached its highest development during the reign of Charles 3 175988Popularized accessible to many people Socieades Economicas de Amigos del Paris whose first branch developed in 1765 devoted to rational pursuit of knowledge Enlightment supporters were reformers change the economic system political schools and churchs Economy argued against entailed estatesequally powerful institutions of corporate privilege sheep raisers guild and advocated the development of scientific agriculture Adam Smithproperty oriented ththstate and society brought in liberalism in 18 19 century inspired the constitution in SpainHard to keep out this thought by the royal colonists who comprised the active citizenry discussed similar ideas as those in Europe the efforts by royal officials as well as local reformers to stimulate economic and scientific development Fausto and Juan Jose Elhuyar 1757 Fausto went to mexico in 1788 studied mining techniques before in Mexico he created the College of Mines Jose went to New Granada trained those in scientific work Economic progress influenced enlightenment thinking 17801813 economic societies Soceidades Economicas de Amigos del Pais modeled after Madrid Society was established in the colonies not all success supporte progress in pursuit of economic development membership was landlords bureaucrats rather than scientists political theorists they brought the ideas to the elite Still didnt bring independenceColonial universities highschools soure of new ideas taught Newton but colonies were not ready for intellectual changea century later education was modernized and became a reality government officials encouraged this process By end of century virtually no intellectual distance between EuropeColoniesNot all colonies came under the influence of enlightment favoured independence the concept of popular sovereignty was integral components of Spanish thought and were still influential Jesuit Suarzez the polity was created by individuals to secure the general good power was through the king through the principles of translation royal authority was legitimate as the king didnt rule tyrannically if he did they could oust him and replace him The Bourbon ReformsSeven Years War hurt Spain 1762 crown needed more imperial defense which required increase in royal revenues many reforms and initatives known as the Bourbon Reform Spanish Bourbons were to centralize the colonial system to protect the empire from foreign encroachment to enhance royal preorgatives as well as further royal absolutismMilitary ReformsConsequences of bourbon reforms created regular army units and expande the militia with creole officers Stationing the colonies with peninsular troops to defend them against foreign invasion or of social unrest would need large money just at the time the crown was reforming the imperial system to produce increased revenues The weakened financial system limited this colonial armies were created and militia units were enlarged incorporating 10000 part time soliders The miltia got the same priveleges of those in regular army personnel and the privelge of special military jursidction for themselves and their families Many creoles may joined the miltia to take themselves out of the influence of civil courts but they got an enhanced status the uniform was great attraction got obvious privilege with their peninsular colleagues in many frontiers creoles were pleased to see formation of local militia units if more peninsular troops were available they would have felt competition in social dominance pensinsular troops were attractive to creole ladies this was also social economic mobility for many poor whites and casstes who found the military career not always available elsewhereFrustration existedmen in craftscommerce burdened with militia units mobilized for service at other towns some hired replacements smaller stores couldnt and mad they had to parade when they should have been in their stores Attractive gone away hard to recruit personnel many militia groups poorly equippted and functioned below standards deployed for political rather than military reasonsConsequences crown put in a reform to preserve the empire but it created elements of the future patriot tharmies 19 century organize troops could be called out at a moments notice officers were creoles many would opt for independence troops often were employeesdependents of the officers in the rural regions crown had supplied a ingredient for successful independence movement though some remained royalists during the war and clashedFree Trade 1778 free trade policy of limited free trade cuba 1765 1778 expanded permitted 13 ports in Spain to trade directly with all of the important ports in the Spanish American colonies except Veracruz Mexico
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