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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 from Global Politics

Political Science
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Globalization- Political Science 114 26/12/2012 9:33:00 PM
The Rise and fall of Civilizations and Empires
Patterns in the history of war and peace:
The reoccurrence of war and conflict between civilizations, peoples
and empires.
The rise and fall of civilizations and empires.
The recorded political history of the world is primarily the history of
the activities of great civilizations, empires, and states.
The development of an intellectual tradition of statecraft, drawn
from historical experience.
The rise of political geography and geopolitics.
Civilizations and war have a symbolic relationship; once individuals settled in
a given area, and their survival becomes tied to the land around them, the
idea of ownership and the protective instinct become very strong.
Roman empire, the rise and fall
After it fell, northern and southern European countries took over
other countries.
Feudal system/feudalism: the legal and social system that evolved in
Western Europe in the 8th and 9th centuries, in which vassals were protected
and maintained by their lords, usually through the granting of fiefs, and
were required to serve them in war.
Karl Marx said that development of feudalism was an important
step in the evolution of society towards capitalism, which in turn
was a step towards communism.
Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) General Europeans war was fought mainly in
Germany: petty German princes and foreign powers (France, Sweden,
Denmark, England) against the Holy Roman Empire (Hapsburgs in Austria,
Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain); also a religious war of
Protestants against Catholics. Ended with the Treaty of Westphalia.
There were many wars and the expansion of the religion, Islam was
introduced and started to dominate certain countries after the fall of
Rome especially when the Ottoman Empire started expanding all
around the Black Sea, it was lead by the Suleiman the Magnificent.
It was one of the greatest empires in the world, but the Mughal
Empire in India clashed with Ottoman cause political harm which.
However, the Ottoman empire stayed in power till WW1.tutor
Tutorial Notes:
Rise of empires/civilizations/great powers

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War is permanent, peace is temporary
History is made by the strong powers/ winners, than weaker
o Winner was seen as a positive force
Rising importance of geo-politics
Rise of intellectual tradition in understandability of international
Modern State:
The term state refers to these qualities:
1) Diplomatic recognition is needed when another state of country is
claiming a country that it wants to claim.
5 countries of the UN nation recognize you as a country or a
defined territory.
2) Defined territory/recognized borders.
3) Permanent population
4) They are sovereign with respect to other states
5) Monopoly on the legitimate use of force
Peace of Westphalia:
- The modern international system is often called the Westphalian state
system. It ended the 30-year war and established a new order in Europe.
Foundation of the modern state.
Stopped the war of religion “Christianity”
It established the constitutional, legal status of states as territorial
Sovereign state: to be free from foreign interference in its domestic
affairs, it is also recognized by the UN.
The territorial state was sovereign, it was free to determine and
practice its domestic affairs meaning the religious domination
followed by the ruler and the people were free from external
The beginning of supremacy of the state marked the year 1648 in
European affairs.
They introduced the peace of Westphalia for 2 reasons:
1. The power of the church had been weakened by split of Christendom
because of the Reformation time, and revealed the fragility of Christian
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