Detailed Textbook Notes Chapter 5

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6 Jan 2011
Chapter 5: International Institutions & Law
International Organizations (IO) & international law (IL) seen as instrumental arm of
global governance
Global Governance: Regulation of interdependent relations between & among states,
market, citizens, organizations & other non-state transnational actors through
development of institutions, law & other formal or informal mechanisms of cooperation
Liberal institutionalists view IOs & international regimes as solutions to market failure
problems, reducing uncertainty & promoting further cooperation; Realists less
enthusiastic about purpose & prospects of international institutions & law, which they
view primarily as vessels or forums for pursuit of national interests
Neo-Marxist & Gramscians important elements of superstructure of capitalist
system can be found @ IO & IL level
Global governance refers to efforts to manage common actions problems with
decentralized yet coordinated political authority & regulation
2 types of IOs exist:
Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs): International organizations created by
& composed of member states
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
IGOs share # of characteristics:
1.Comprise states and only states
2. IGOs created by treaties between states and, therefore, have legal standing
under IL
3.Hold regular meetings attended by delegates from member states
4. IGOs have permanent headquarters & an executive secretariat that runs day-to-
day activities of organization
5.Have permanent administrative employees who work for organization & dont
represent their governments; they are international bureaucrats
Several types of IGOs exist
omultipurpose, universal-membership organization
oserves as many functions & can be joined by all stated in international
European Union / European Community (EC) most famous regional IGO
International Organizations & Regimes in History
The League & UN established for 2 primary reasons:
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Practicality as nation-state system was established & contacts expanded,
governments would have to maintain linkages that facilitated communication &
IOs can serve broader purpose, such as establishment or maintenance of world
order & peace
The League of Nations
Created end of WWI inspired by idealism
Associated hope for world free from war
2 basic principles underlay system of peace maintenance:
Members agreed to respect & preserve territorial integrity & political
independence of other states
Any war or threat of war was considered matter of concern to entire
Major emphasis on maintaining international peace & stability; Also recognized for
promoting economic & social cooperation
League organization centred around 3 major organs:
Assembly all member-states belonged > > Main deliberative organs
Council select few belonged >> (Each state possessed 1 vote)
Members League established Permanent Court of International Justice in 1921 to
resolve disputes between members of international community
Assembly primarily responsible for discussing important issues confronting either
individual members of League or international community as a whole
Council primarily responsible for discussing maintenance of peace
Reasons for Leagues demise:
Absence of United States, & during shorter periods, absence of Soviet Union &
Collapse can be linked to inherent deficiencies of its Covenant
Such as Japan & Ethiopia, it appeared to be lack of political will among members
of League
Aggressive foreign policies of Axis powers made successful League impossible
League of Nations officially disbanded in April 1946
United Nations Organization
Plans to create UN began during WWI
Committee of jurists representing virtually all states that would attend San Francisco
conference discussed creation of an International Court of Justice (ICI), which would
replace Permanent Court of International Justice established under League of Nations
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