LIN200 Chapter 2 notes.docx

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Bridget Jankowski

LIN200–Chapter2(Week2Reading) The Vocabulary of English: Where Do Our Words come from? 2.1 Introduction  Unabridged dictionaries contain 500 000 – 600 000 lexical entries, each with a number of subentries  Most people know 15-20% of these words 2.2 Where Do Our Words Come From?  English is a European language from the Indo-European Language Family  Indo-European descended from (PIE) Proto-Indo-European  English belongs to Western Branch of Germanic subfamily under Indo-European  Dutch, German, Frisian, and Yiddish closest to English language 2.3 The History of English  English originated as dialect of Proto-Germanic from Angles, Saxons and Jutes tribes  “English” comes from names “Angles” (language spoken called “Angl-isc”) Old English (449 – 1100)  Language of Shakespeare and king James bible note Old English, they are Early modern English  Grammar similar to that of modern German with elaborate system of suffixes to indicate tense, person, number, gender, and case o Called “inflectional suffixes”  Vocabulary almost entirely Germanic  E.g. man, child, house, strong, eat, drink, and fight all Germanic in origin o Vocab. Also contained small # of words borrowed from Latin b/c contact w/ Romans  E.g. cheese, urine, wine, butter, angel, school, street o Borrowed also from Old Norse th th  Viking raids and settlements 8 – 10 centuries in northeastern part of England  E.g. sky, skirt, egg, follow, freckle, sister, dirt, die, rake, scowl, and take  E.g. third person plural pronouns they, their, and them Proto-Indo European (c.4500 B.C.) Balto- Indo- Celtic Germanic Italic Slavic Hellenic Albanian Armenian Iranian Irish North West Latin Baltic Slavic Greek Iranian Indic Germanic Germanic Scots Icelandic English Portugese Lithuanian Polish Persian Urdu Welsh Norwegian Dutch Spanish Latvian Czech Kurdish Hindi Serbo- Swedish German French Croatian Bengali Danish Yiddish Italian Russian Romanian  Only need to know Germanic Branch for the Midterm  This chart was created by me in word using smart art based on info and a similar chart in the textbook (no copyright intended) Middle English (1100 – 1500)  Originated with Norman Conquest of 1066 – invasion of England by Normans from France (William the Conqueror)  Old French predominant language of English aristocracy  English re-emerged as dominant language by fourteenth century but with thousands of borrowed French words o Government (parliament, treaty, tax) o Church (religion, baptism, faith) o Law (sentence, fine, prison) o Food (salmon, oyster, pork, bacon, beef) o Fashionable life (curtain, chair, music, dalliance, and conversation)  Grammar more like that of modern English, most inflectional suffixes lost  Relied primarily on word order and structural words (auxiliaries, prepositions, etc.) for grammar in sentences  Words borrowed from French during Middle English times still used today sometimes w/different spelling and meaning Modern English (1500 – present)  Invention of printing press introduced to England by William Caxton (1475)  Books more common, many people learned to read and write  Classical works translated from Latin, Greek and French into English to satisfy public demand for learning  Words that could not be easily rendered into English appropriated original words by translator with slight change in spelling o E.g. pedestrian, bonus, insurgent, palliate, paradox, philanthropy, cosmos, and amphibious  Borrowed from written texts, retain character as primarily written vs. spoken words Early Modern English (1500 – 1700)  Most familiar examples include King James Bible and Shakespeare  Shakespeare uses some inflectional forms no longer used (e.g. doth = does, crew = crowed)  Some words have different meanings (e.g. erring used to mean ‘wandering’)  Vocabulary mostly familiar to us containing both native English and borrowed words Late Modern English (1700 – pre
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