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Effective Leadership ch10.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Gill Parveen

Ch.10 Effective Leadership  Leadership: the process of motivating, influencing, and directing others in the organization to work productively in pursuit of organization goals. What Makes An Effective Leader?  Effective Leadership: the ability of a leader to get high performance from his or her subordinates  Power influence approach, attempts to explain leadership effectiveness in terms of the amount of power possessed by a leader, the type of power possessed, and how that power is used to influence others within the organization.  Trait or competency perspective, has tried to identify the traits and competencies of the effective leaders  Behavior perspective asserts that certain behaviors are related to leadership effectiveness.  Transformational perspective suggests that effective leaders “transform” organizations through their vision, communication, and ability to build commitment to that vision among employees.  Strategic Thinking: the cognitive ability to analyze a complex situation, abstract from it, and draw conclusions about the best strategy for the firm to follow  Achievement Motivation: the unconscious concern for achieving excellence in accomplishments through one’s individual efforts  Power Motivation: the unconscious drive to acquire status and power and to have an impact on others  Charisma: The ability of some people to charm or influence others  Emotional Intelligence: the ability to monitor one’s own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.  Key components of emotional intelligence are these: o Self-awareness –the ability to understand one’s own moods, emotions and drives as well as their effect on others o Self-regulation –the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses or mods and to think before acting o Motivation –a passion for work that goes beyond money or status and a propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence o Empathy –understanding the feelings and viewpoints of subordinates, and taking those into account when making decisions o Social skills –friendliness with a purpose The Behavior Perspective  People oriented behavior: a leadership style that includes showing mutual trust and respect for subordinates demonstrating genuine concern for their needs, and having a desire to look out for their welfare.  Task oriented behavior: the style of leaders who assign employees to specific tasks, clarify their work duties and procedures, ensure that they follow company rules, and push them to reach their performance capacity. The Contingency Perspective  Three leadership perspectives, Fiedler’s contingency theory, path-goal theory and the leadership substitutes theory. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory  Leader-member relations: How well followers respect, trust and like their leaders.  Task Structure: the degree to which the jobs of subordinates are highly structured with clear work responsibilities, well defined tasks, exploit goals and specific procedures.  Position power: the power that derives from formal hierarchical power over subordinates, including the legitimate power to hire, fire, reward, and punish subordinates.  Effectiveness of a leader should be measured by how the team, group or organization under the leader performed Path-Goal Theory  Path goal theory is most complex leadership  Best leadership style depends on the situation  Path-goal theory is based on the assumption that leaders can change their style to match the situation Effective Leadership  Clarifying the path means leaders work with subordinates to help them identify and learn behaviors that will lead to goal attainment  Clearing the path means leaders try to take care of problems and remove obstacles that make it difficult for subordinates to attain their goals  Identifying and offering rewards means leaders identify what will motivate their subordinates to work toward goal attainment, and then put the appropriate rewards in place. Leadership Styles 1. Directive leadership: occurs when leaders tell subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do, giving them goals, specific tasks, guidelines for performing those tasks and the like. 2. Supportive leadership: a leadership style in which the leader is approachable and friendly, shows concern for the welfare of subordinates and treats them as equals 3. Participative leadership: a leadership style in which the leader consults with his or her subordinates, asking for their opinions before making a decision 4. Achievement oriented leadership: occurs when a leader sets high goals for subordinates, has high expectations for their performance, and displays confidence in subordinates, encouraging and helping them to take on greater responsibilities. Contingencies – Path goal theory argues that a leader can change his or her leadership style, and that two important contingencies dictate the best choice of leadership style 1. The personal characteristics of subordinates 2. The nature of the work environment Leadership Substitutes  Leadership substitutes: contingencies that may act as substitutes for a leadership style  A substitute is a situational variable (a contingency) that makes a leadership style unnecessary Transformational Leadership  Transformational Leader: a leader who is an agent of strategic and organizational change  Transformational leaders reenergize troubled organizations, pushing them in new strategic directions and engineering wholesale changes in operational processes, organization architecture and culture.  Transactional Leader: a leader who helps an organization achieve its current objectives Transformational Leadership  Transformational leaders: 1. Envision a different future for the organizations they are leading 2. Communicate this new vision to employees 3. Model desired behaviors –they recognize that to succeed, they must lead by example. 4. Empower employees –to implement the grand strategic visions they have articulated 5. Make meaningful changes in the activities and architecture of an organization 6. Lead with integ
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