Ch.10 Effective Leadership
Leadership: the process of motivating, influencing, and directing others in the organization
to work productively in pursuit of organization goals.
What Makes An Effective Leader?
Effective Leadership: the ability of a leader to get high performance from his or her
Power influence approach, attempts to explain leadership effectiveness in terms of the amount
of power possessed by a leader, the type of power possessed, and how that power is used to
influence others within the organization.
Trait or competency perspective, has tried to identify the traits and competencies of the
Behavior perspective asserts that certain behaviors are related to leadership effectiveness.
Transformational perspective suggests that effective leaders “transform” organizations
through their vision, communication, and ability to build commitment to that vision among
Strategic Thinking: the cognitive ability to analyze a complex situation, abstract from it, and
draw conclusions about the best strategy for the firm to follow
Achievement Motivation: the unconscious concern for achieving excellence in
accomplishments through one’s individual efforts
Power Motivation: the unconscious drive to acquire status and power and to have an impact
Charisma: The ability of some people to charm or influence others
Emotional Intelligence: the ability to monitor one’s own and others feelings and emotions,
to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions.
Key components of emotional intelligence are these:
o Self-awareness –the ability to understand one’s own moods, emotions and drives as
well as their effect on others
o Self-regulation –the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses or mods and to
think before acting
o Motivation –a passion for work that goes beyond money or status and a propensity to
pursue goals with energy and persistence
o Empathy –understanding the feelings and viewpoints of subordinates, and taking those
into account when making decisions
o Social skills –friendliness with a purpose
The Behavior Perspective
People oriented behavior: a leadership style that includes showing mutual trust and respect
for subordinates demonstrating genuine concern for their needs, and having a desire to look
out for their welfare. Task oriented behavior: the style of leaders who assign employees to specific tasks, clarify
their work duties and procedures, ensure that they follow company rules, and push them to
reach their performance capacity.
The Contingency Perspective
Three leadership perspectives, Fiedler’s contingency theory, path-goal theory and the
leadership substitutes theory.
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
Leader-member relations: How well followers respect, trust and like their leaders.
Task Structure: the degree to which the jobs of subordinates are highly structured with clear
work responsibilities, well defined tasks, exploit goals and specific procedures.
Position power: the power that derives from formal hierarchical power over subordinates,
including the legitimate power to hire, fire, reward, and punish subordinates.
Effectiveness of a leader should be measured by how the team, group or organization under
the leader performed
Path goal theory is most complex leadership
Best leadership style depends on the situation
Path-goal theory is based on the assumption that leaders can change their style to match the
Clarifying the path means leaders work with subordinates to help them identify and learn
behaviors that will lead to goal attainment
Clearing the path means leaders try to take care of problems and remove obstacles that make
it difficult for subordinates to attain their goals
Identifying and offering rewards means leaders identify what will motivate their subordinates
to work toward goal attainment, and then put the appropriate rewards in place.
1. Directive leadership: occurs when leaders tell subordinates exactly what they are supposed
to do, giving them goals, specific tasks, guidelines for performing those tasks and the like.
2. Supportive leadership: a leadership style in which the leader is approachable and friendly,
shows concern for the welfare of subordinates and treats them as equals
3. Participative leadership: a leadership style in which the leader consults with his or her
subordinates, asking for their opinions before making a decision
4. Achievement oriented leadership: occurs when a leader sets high goals for subordinates,
has high expectations for their performance, and displays confidence in subordinates,
encouraging and helping them to take on greater responsibilities. Contingencies – Path goal theory argues that a leader can change his or her leadership style, and that
two important contingencies dictate the best choice of leadership style
1. The personal characteristics of subordinates
2. The nature of the work environment
Leadership substitutes: contingencies that may act as substitutes for a leadership style
A substitute is a situational variable (a contingency) that makes a leadership style unnecessary
Transformational Leader: a leader who is an agent of strategic and organizational change
Transformational leaders reenergize troubled organizations, pushing them in new strategic
directions and engineering wholesale changes in operational processes, organization
architecture and culture.
Transactional Leader: a leader who helps an organization achieve its current objectives
1. Envision a different future for the organizations they are leading
2. Communicate this new vision to employees
3. Model desired behaviors –they recognize that to succeed, they must lead by example.
4. Empower employees –to implement the grand strategic visions they have articulated
5. Make meaningful changes in the activities and architecture of an organization
6. Lead with integ