Human Resource Management (HRM): The process of determining human
resource needs and then recruiting, selecting, developing, motivating, evaluating,
compensating, and scheduling employees to achieve organizational goals.
Five steps are involved in the human resources planning process
1. Preparing a human resources inventory of the organization’s employees
2. Preparing a job analysis
3. Assessing future human resources demand
4. Assessing future human resources supply.
5. Establishing a strategic plan
Job analysis: A study of what is done by employees who hold various job titles.
Job description: A summary of the objectives of a job, the type of work to be done,
the responsibilities and duties, the working conditions, and the relationship of the
job to other functions.
Job specifications: A written summary of the minimum qualifications required of
workers to do a particular job.
Recruitment: The set of activities used to obtain a sufficient number of the right
people at the right time.
Selection: The process of gathering information and deciding who should be hired,
under legal guidelines, for the best interests of the individual and the organization. A typical selection process involves five steps
1. Obtaining complete application forms
2. Conducting initial and follow-up interviews
3. Giving employment tests
4. Confirming background information
5. Establishing trial (probationary) periods
Contingent workers: Workers who do not have regular, full-time employment.
Training and development: All attempts to improve productivity by increasing an
employee’s ability to perform. Training focuses on short-term skills, whereas
development focuses on long-term abilities
Employee orientation: The activity that introduces new employees to the
organization; to fellow employees; to their immediate supervisors; and to the
policies, practices, values, and objectives of the firm.
On-the-job training: Training in which the employee immediately begins his or her
tasks and learns by doing, or watches others for a while and then imitates them, all
right at the workplace.
Apprentice programs: Training programs involving a period during which a
learner works alongside an experienced employee to master the skills and
procedures of a craft.
Off-the-job training: Training that occurs away from the workplace and consists of
internal or external programs to develop any of a variety of skills or to foster
Online training: Training programs in which employees “attend” classes via the
Vestibule training: Training done in schools where employees are taught on
equipment similar to that used on the job.
Job simulation: The use of equipment that duplicates job conditions and tasks so
that trainees can learn skills before attempting them on the job
Management development: The process of training and educating employees to
become good managers and then monitoring the progress of their managerial skills
Most management training programs also include several of the following:
· Understudy positions
· Job rotation · Off-the-job courses and training
Enabling: Giving workers the education and tools they need to make decisions.
Networking: The process of establishing and maintaining contacts with key
managers in one’s own organization and other organizations and using those
contacts to weave strong relationships that serve as informal development systems.
Mentor: An experienced employee who supervises, coaches, and guides lower-level
employees by introducing them to the right people and generally being their