Leadership: The process of motivating, influencing, and directing others in the
organization to work productively in pursuit of organization goals.
The ability of a leader to get high performance from his or her subordinates.
One perspective, the power–influence approach, attempts to explain leadership
effectiveness in terms of the amount of power possessed by a leader, the type of
power possessed, and how that power is used to influence others within the
Another perspective, called the trait or competency perspective, has tried to
identify the traits and competencies of effective leaders.
A third approach, the behaviour perspective, asserts that certain behaviours are
related to leadership effectiveness.
The contingency perspective argues that the appropriate behaviours for a leader
to adopt depend on con- text, and that what works in some situations will not in
Finally, the last two decades have seen the rise of work on what is called the
transformational perspective on leadership. The transformational perspective
suggests that effective leaders “transform” organizations through their vision,
communication, and ability to build commitment to that vision among employees
Strategic thinking: The cognitive ability to analyze a complex situation, abstract
from it, and draw conclusions about the best strategy for the firm to follow.
Achievement motivation: The unconscious concern for achieving excellence in
accomplishments through one’s individual efforts.
Power motivation: The unconscious drive to acquire status and power and to have
an impact on others. Charisma: The ability of some people to charm or influence others.
Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to monitor one’s own and others’
feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to
guide one’s thinking and actions
According to Goleman, the key components of emotional intelligence are these:
· Self-awareness—the ability to understand one’s own moods, emotions, and
drives, as well as their effect on others.
· Self-regulation—the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses or moods