Chapter 10 leadership
• leadership is the process of motivating, influencing, and directing others in the organization to work
productively in pursuit of organization
• Warren Bennis, states leaders are concerned with doing the right things. managers are concerned with
doing things right. leaders focus on vision, mission and goals. managers focus on efficiency and
• according to Kotter, management is about coping with complexity. Leadership is about coping with
• all managers are leaders.
• effective leadership means the ability of a leader to get high performance from his or her subordinates
• power-influence approach - explains leadership effectiveness in terms of the amount of power
possessed by a leader, the type of power possessed and how that power is used to influence
• trait or competency perspective - tried identify traits of a leader
• behaviour pers - behaviours of leaders
• contingency pers - argues that the appropriate behavrious for a leader to adopt depend on context, and
that what works in some situations won't in others.
• transformational pers - suggests that effective leaders transofrm organizations through their vision,
communication and ability to build commitment to that vision
• leaders have power that comes from their position. They have power over the distribution of rewards
and sanctions and over the allocation of scarce resources.
• Jeffrey Gandz believes that leaders not only must have a vision, but that the vision should emerge
through collaboration with stakeholders and be meaningful to all employees within the context of their
work. The leader should have personal credibility, successful track record, or some other other
evidence that will indicate probable success
• a network of allies can be a significant source of power enabling a leader to push through a policy or
program against substantial opposition from an important constituency
• effective leaders are skilled organizational politicians. They know how to use power to win over
important things to their cause and to remove or neutralize obstacles to their strategies
Competency (trait) pers
• traits like intelligence, motivation, drive, self-confidence, and desire for power - might be assc. with
• these traits might be important predictors of effective leadership. including strategic ability, achievement
motivation, power motivation, charismatic traits and emotional intelligence • strategic thinking refers to the cognitive ability to analyze a complex situation, abstract from it, and draw
conclusions about the best strategy for the firm to follow. strategic thinking requires a combination of
intelligence and reasoning skills. People with a talent for big-picture startegic thinking can cut straight
right through it and get to the heart of the issue.
• Winston Churchill and Bill Gates is another example of leader who has demonstrated strategic thinking
• achievement motivation is the unconscious concern for achieving excellence in accomplishments
through one's individual efforts. They set goals for themselves. They have a high degree of intrinsic
• power motivation is defined as the unconscious drive to acquire status and power and to have an
impact on others.
• Effective leaders need to act with integrity.
• charisma is the ability that some people have to charm or influence others. Have magnetic
personalities. leaderes who lack charisma needs to rely on facts
• emotional intelligence refers to the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, you
need: self-awareness, self regulation, motivation, empathy, social skills
• people oriented behaviour: leadership style that includes showing mutual trust and respect for
subordinates, demonstrating a genuine concern for their needs and having a desire to look out for their
• task oriented bhvr: assigning employees to specific tasks, clarify their work duties and procedures,
ensure that they follow company rules, and psuh them to reach their performance capacity. They
establish and stretch goals and challenge employees
• Fred Fiedler - his assumption was that it is impossible for leaders to change their styles.
• His research showed that task-oriented leaders did well when situations are favourable (because
everyone gets along, task is clear, and leader has the power neede to take charge and set the
direction) and unfavourable (because they can establish goals and impose structure on the tasks of
employees, giving them direction). His view of people-oreinted leader is that they would be incapable of
imposing the required structure and goals.
• the great virtue of his theory is that is advocates matching the leader to the situation. A weakness is that
it seems simplistic
• his theory suggests that a leader who succeeds in changing the situation should perhaps be replaced
by another leader more suited to the new situation. However it seems unrealistic to "reward" an
effective leader by removing him because he has done his job so wel that an unfavourable sitation has
become more favourable.
• He came up with 3 main situational factors/contingencies o leader-member relations - refers to how well followers respect, trust and like their leaders.
o task structure - which refers to the degree to which the jobs of subordinates are highly
structured with clear work responsibilities, well defined tasks, explicit goals, and specific
o position power - which is the power that derives from formal hierarchical power over
subordinates and includes the legitimate power to hire