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8th Lecture (2nd chapter) - Human Resource Management
8th Lecture (2nd chapter) - Human Resource Management

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dave Swanston

Chapter 9Human Resource Management page 198233 Lecture 8 Human Resource Management HRM the process of determining human resource needs and then recruitingdevelopingselectingmotivatingevaluating compensating and scheduling employees to achieve organizational goalsWorking with People Is Just the BeginningIt is true that human resources managers work with people but they are also deeply involved in planning record keeping and other administrative duties Human Resources HR professionals can do a lot to develop people to fulfill roles that contribute to organizational success and individual happiness In the HR profession we are not only of service to an organization but we are also of service to the very society of which we are all a part I cant think of a profession where we can make more of a difference Healthy organizations are like oxygen to a vibrant community and family unitthere is an inextricable link between what happens in organizations and the prosperity of a countryDeveloping the Ultimate ResourceOne reason why human resource management is receiving increased attention is the major shift from traditional manufacturing industries to service and hightech manufacturing industries that require highly technical job skills This shift means that many workers must be retrained for new more challenging jobsSome people have called employees the ultimate resource and when you think about it nothing could be truer People develop the ideas that eventually become the products that satisfy consumers wants and needs The problem is that in the past human resources were relatively plentiful so there was little need to nurture and develop them If you needed qualified people you simply went out and hired them If they didnt work out you fired them and found others But qualified employees are scarcer today and that makes recruiting more difficultHistorically the job of human resource management has been distributed among various parts of an organizationthat is there was no official department for HR now it is emerging and becoming one of the most valuable departments in an organizationThe Human Resources ChallengeThe changes in the business environment that have had the most dramatic impact on the workings of the free enterprise system are the changes in the labor force The ability of businesses to compete in international markets depends on new products and services and new levels of productivity in other words on people with good ideasManaging talent was the number one human resources challenge worldwide and there were predictions that it would remain at or near the top of executive agendas for the foreseeable future In Canada other critical challenges include managing demographics the implications of an aging workforce improving leadership development managing worklife balance and transforming HR into a strategic partner To create people advantage and overcome some of the human resource challenges identified there are five major steps to be taken by companies 1 Understand the external environment2 Understand the internal environment3 Select the most critical human resource topics and set priorities4 Initiate projects with dedicated teams5 Secure support from top managementThe three greatest opportunities facing HR professionals today are1 To be relentless in ensuring that every undertaking is well sponsored and has positive business impact2 To be a catalyst for constructive change by building on the strengths of the organization3 To build integrated and aligned people systems that differentiate the organization in the marketplace and that can be selfmanaged Given the issues mentioned HRM has taken a more central position in management thinking than ever before While the HR challenges are greater than ever before so too are the opportunities for companies to excel through their HR strategies Determining Your Human Resources NeedsAll management including human resource management begins with planning Five steps are involved in the human resources planning process1Preparing a human resources inventory of the organizations employees This inventory should include ages names education eg languages spoken capabilities training specialized skills and other information pertinent to the specific organization Such information reveals whether the labour force is technically up to date thoroughly trained and so forth2Preparing a job analysis A job analysis is a study of what is done by employees who hold various job titles Its necessary to recruit and train employees with the necessary skills to do the job The result is two written statements job descriptions and job specifications A job description specifies the objectives of the job the type of work to be done the responsibilities and duties the working conditions and the relationship of the job to other functions Job specifications are a written summary of the minimum qualifications eg education and skills required of workersparticular jobto do a 3Assessing future human resources demand Because technology changes rapidly training programs must be started long before the need is apparent HR managers anticipate the organizations requirements identified in the forecasting processand ensure that trained people are available when needed4Assessing future human resources supply The labour force is constantly shifting getting older becoming more technically oriented attracting more women and so forth There are likely to be increased shortages of some workers in the future5Establishing a strategic plan The plan must address recruitment selection training and development evaluation compensation scheduling and career management for the labour force For this plan to have impact the HR department must have upper management support for its acceptance and implementation Because the previous four steps lead up to this one this chapter will focus on these elements of the strategic human resources planSome companies use advanced technology to perform this human resources planning process more efficiently Recruiting Employees From A Diverse PopulationRecruitment is the set of activities used to obtain a sufficient number of the right people at the right time continuous flow of new peopleThe end result is to have a pool of qualified applicants Despite thein the work force recruiting has become very difficult for several reasons1Some organizations have policies that demand promotions from within operate under union contracts or offer low wages which makes recruiting and keeping employees difficult or subject to outside influence and restrictions2There are legal guidelines that surround hiring practices The Canadian Human Rights Act requires that employers provide equal employment opportunities The Canadian Human Rights Act protects those that work for federally regulated organizations or service providers eg chartered banks and airlines The rest of employees are protected by provincial or territorial jurisdiction
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