approaches to work motivation and job design.docx
approaches to work motivation and job design.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Multiple Professors

Ch 9 Approaches to work motivation and job designIntroductionexamine concept of motivation and explore some of its implicationsOverview of motivationno single accepted defn of motivationmotivation concerns the factors that push us or pull us to behave in certain waysmade up of three components1 Direction what a person is trying to do2 effort how hard a person is trying3 persistence how long a person continues tryingsome key points should be rememberedpeople are usually motivated to do somethingother factors affect quality of worklike most concepts in work psychology motivation is abstract it cannot be observed directlyone oftenmade distinction is betweencontent theories and process theories of motivationthe former focus on what motivates human behavior at work The latter concentrate on how the content of motivation influences behaviorCommonsense approaches to motivationthe common sense theories X Y SocialTheory X ppl cannot be trusted They are irrational unreliable and inherently lazy They therefore need to be controlled and motivated using financial incentives and threats of punishmentTheory Y ppl seek independence selfdevelopment and creativity in their work They cansee further than immediate circumstances and are able to adapt new ones Fundamentally moral and responsible beings who if treated as such will strive for the good of their work organizationSocial a persons behavior is influenced most fundamentally by social interactions which can determine his or her sense of identity and belonging at work People seek meaningful social realtionships at workthese commonsense views of motivation contradict each other but all have some truthNeed TheoriesWhat are theyneed theories are based on the idea that there are psychological needs probably of biological origin that lie behind human behaviorWhen our needs are unmet we experience tension or diseqlbrm which we try to put right Ie we behave in ways that satisfy our needsNeed theories based on psychological growthMaslow proposed 5 classes of human needs1 physiological need for food drink sex etc the most primitive and fundamental biological needs2 Safety need for physical and psychological safety a predicatble and nonthreatening environment3 Belongingness need to feel a sense of attachement to another person or group of persons4 esteem need to feel values and respected by self and significant other ppl
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