Ch 10 group dynamics.docx

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Ch 10 group dynamicsIntroductionmany workers will tell you that the group processes and dynamics in the team which they may refer to as morale or team spirit is often a major determinant of the efficacy of that teams workif ppl work in groups or teams it becomes crucially important to understand how they operate and why intra and intergroup cooperation and competition occur and their organizational consequenceswhy ppl join groupssecurity mutual benefits needs to be social selfesteemin all modern organizations employees are formally grouped into different unites such as sections departments and centersalso during breaks at work and in after work activities they form into informal friendship groupsthe social relationship that occur in these formal and informal groups can have a significant effect on the way ppl work together and ultimately the quality and wauntity of their work outputefficient group functioning takes effort and skill which can eat into productivity timethe concept of process loss refers to the effort expended on social group dynamics that should or could be used on task accomplishmentoften due to coordination problems and motivational processesvarious factors determine the effectiveness of a group measure by such things as coutput group continuity and moralethey include the primary task of the group challenge complexisty the composition and structure of the group size diversity managerial support via training rewards and the group dynamics which are analogous to the group processesWhat is a groupessentially a group is made up of persons more than two which is a dyad who communicate regularly shre goals and interact with each other ocer timegroups have 4 defining characterisitcscomposed of more then 2 ppl involved in social interaction who must be able to influence each others beleifs and beahviorsthey share common goals on certain issues agreed goals objectives and targets Goal sharing is an achievement in any group as much as defining characteristicthey have a realtively stable structure rules and roles that endure over time and scorss different social situationsthey openly perceive and recognize themselves as being a stable groupall teams are groups but not all groups are teamsgroups can work without one another teams cannot4 kinds of teamswork teams attempting to achieve specific tasksparallele teams which operate alongside formal organizationsproject teams created for a specific purpose over a specific timemanagement teams whose task is to run the businesswork groups are important sources of individuals social need satisfactiongroups in organizations that fulfill this psychological function are also more productivethere are a few universals with respect to groupssmalll groups do exist and must be dealt with by managersgroup formation is inevitableall groups mobilize powerful forces that affect individualsgroup behavior has both good and bad consequencesunderstanding groupd dyanmics and increase the chances of obtaining desirable consequences from group interactionthere are many issues facing the new group workclimate how close friendly casual should group interaction be Should the group be intimate or simply associativeparticipation how much and what type of participation should occur This refers to the quality and quantity of group members interactions with each othergoal comprehension how much of the goals of the group need to be understood by each member and how crucial is it that all members are committed to themcommunication what channels are preferred and how is the group networked Do they prefer facetoface contact rather than a fax Are they all regular emailers Do they have open access toe ach otherconflicthandling how are conflict disagreements handled What systems and rules have developed for preventing and soling conflict Indeed whether conflict is encouraged or discouraged at alldecisionmaking how are decisions made and by whom ex Democracy and secret vote senior managers by show of handsperformance evaluation how are members to be appraised What are the critieria Formal or informaldivision of labor how are tasks assigned and subgroups formedleadership how are leaders elected and what are their functionsprocess monitoring how are internal and task processes monitored and check and howis feedback provided argue that the effectiveness of working groups or teams is dependent on 3 sorts of factorsfirst organizational context which refers to the corporate culture the technology the mission clarity the autonomy of the group the type of ffedback and rewards the opprotunities for training and the physical environmentboundaries how the group or team is differentiated from others and how the group is intergrated with other groups in the organizationthird effectiveness is dependent on group development the interpersonal processes norms roles and overall cohesionthey also idenftied a cast range of types of groups each with different functions aims and ambitionsmaybe be a useful typology for categorizing workgroups but such typologies do not tell us much about the group dynmaics within any specific workgroupGroup developmenttuckman believed groups usually go through a particular stagewise sequence before reaching a mature and effective stagethis concept suggers all the problems of all stagewise theories such as not clarifiying how long each stage lasts what determines the change from one to another whether the sequence is always linear whether one can skip a stage and so onForming in the forming stage members focus their efforts on defining goals and developing procedures for performing their task Group development in this stage involves getting acquinted and understanding leadership and other member rolesStorming conflicts often emerge over task behaviors the relative priorities of foals who is to be responsible for what and the taskrealted guidance and direction of the leader Some groups genuinely have little storm but other suppress this stage which can cause problems at a later date
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