Designing Jobs to Enhance Well.docx

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Designing Jobs to Enhance WellBeing and Performancework design can have significant implications for social health and economic policyso serious that its part of Swedish legislationEarly types of Work Design job simplificationTaylor advocated scientific mgmthe basic principle was for engineers to identify the one best way of carrying out particular tasks ex Eliminating all slow or unnecessary movements and then to reconstitute the job according to those best ways This meant a vertical division of labor in which engineers and managers were responsible for determining how to do the work or the thinking aspects whilst employees were to focus on the doing with little or no autonomy over decisionsassociated with scientific mgm was the use of timeandmotion studies in which tasks were timed to find the most efficient way of doing them and then linked to wages to motivate a high rate of productionthe new machinery of the industrial revolution did more thanr educe the physical toil required of workers It also changed jobs and the way ppl thought about them in profound ways A belief emerged that jobs had to be as narrow and simplified as possibleDesigning Individual jobsEarly work redsigns job rotation and horizontal enlargement2 early forms of work redesign were job rotation and horizontal job enlargementhorizontal job enlargement involves broadnening the actual job content to include additional tasks at the sm level of responsibilitya limitation of job rotation and horizontal job enlargement is that these practices typically do not affect the amount of autonomy and decision making authorityJob enrichmentjob enrichment is a type of work redsign that does address the vertical deviison of labor by adding some thinking and planning elements to the jobinvolves enhancing the autonomy and discretion ppl exercise in their work one way is to give employees responsibility for decisions traditionally made by supervisory workusing a longitudinal research design showed that job enrichment had shortterm positive effects on tellers job satisfaction and organizational commitment and a longterm positive effect on performanceinterestingly the gains in job satisfaction and commitment were not sustained in the long term perhaps because employees develop higher expectations for their jobs after work redsign Herzbergs two factor theory and the job characteristics modelone of the early work design theories responsible for putting job enrichment on the agenda is the 2 fafotr or motivationhygiene theoryHerzberg and colleagues asked people to make causal attributions for occasions when they has been either satisfied or dissatisfied at workthey found that satisfaction was typically attributed to aspects intrinsic to the work itself ex The freedom to decide what to do next which they called motivator factors whereas dissatisfaction was mostly attributed to extrinisic factors ex Company policy referred to as hygiene factorssubsequent studies failed to replicate the original resultsa theory of job enrichment that largely replaced Herzberggs two factos theory is the Job Characteristics Modelthe model identified 5 core job characterisitics as important for promoting motivational outcomes
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