James March.docx

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James Marchwork on decision makingfar from a rationally controlled processthe confusion and complexity surrounding decision making are underestimatedmany things happening at once views and aims are changing and alliances between the concerned are changingit is a world in which there are cognitive political and organizational limits to rationalityattention is the key scarce resource Individuals cannot attend to everything at once nor can they be everywhere at once So they attend to some parts of decision making not to all of itWhat they attend to depends upon the alternative claims upon them since giving attention to one decision means overlooking othersalone with scarce attention and bounded reality come erratic preferencesppl change their minds as to what they want Even if they know what they want they may ignore their own preferences and follow other advice or other traditions Preferences may conflict with their own or of othersorganized anarchies though all organizations do not have the properties of organized anarchy all of the time they do for part of the time and especially if they are publicly owned or are educational Organized anarchies have 3 general properties1 since preferences are unclear theorganization discovers its goals from what it is doing rather than by defining them clearly in advance2 since it has unclear technology its own processes are not understood by its memebers and it works by trial and error more than by knowing what it is doing3 sicne there is fluid participation prounouncments on strategy are more reviews of what courses are already taught than statements of future goalsgiven these cognitive political and organizational ch
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