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Tom Burnsparticular concern was with studies of different types of organizations and their effects on communication patterns and on the activities of managersthe difificulties which firms faced in adjusting to the new situation of continuously changing technology and markets led him to describe two ideal types of management organization which are the extreme points of a continuum along which most organizations can be placedmechanistic type of organization is adapted to relatively stable conditionsin it the problems and tasks of management are broken down into specialisms within which each individual carries out their assigned precisely defined taskthere is a clear hierarchy of control and the responsibility for overall knwoeldge and coordination rests exclusively at the top of the hierarchyvertical communication and interaction that is between superiors and subordinates is emphasized with an insistence on loyalty to the concern and obedience to superiorsorganismic organic type of organization is adapted to unstable conditions when new and unfamiliar problems continually arise which cannot be broken down and distributed among the existing specialist rolesthere is there for a continual adjustment and definition of individual tasksinteractions and communication information and advice rather than orders may occur at any level as required by the process generating a much higher degree of commitment to the aims of the organization as a wholein this system organization charts laying down exact functions and responsibilities of each person do not existthe almost complete failure of the traditional Scottish firms to absorb electronics research and development engineers into their organizations leads Burns to doubt whether a mechanistic firm can consciously change to an organic onebc individuals in a mechanis
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