Cooperation, Power, and ethical behavior in organizations.docx

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Cooperation Power and ethical behavior in organizationsIntroductionwhat are the costs of working with versus against others within the organization Is competition rather than cooperation within an organization health with all the subsequent departmental or sectional rivalry How should one foster cooperation How does the power and influence process in organizations promote or inhibit cooperation What sort of power is most effectivewhich types of organizations foster altruism which cooperation and which competitionthe answer to this question is probably best understood in terms of the processes of cooperation and competition Most ppl at work are interdependentthey work in teams groups and sections that may be characterized by cooperation helpfulness and mutual support Equally they are likely to be indifferent or aggressive to other sections of the organization even being in open conflict with themwhereas some ppl have pointed out that competition can raise standards and reduce costs within the organization others feel that the potential negative costs of competition are far too great leading to conflict resentment and even destructive behaviorcooperation involves mutual assistance or coordination between two or more persons or work teams It may occur when two or more persons or groups work together to progress towards shared goals but ti works on different levels for different periods of timeoccurrence of cooperation is affected by several factors relating to the individual communication reciprocity etc but also organizational factors reward systems interdependence among employeescompetition develops when one individual group or organization achieves gains at anothers expensecooperation has been described as winwin while competition has been described as winlosethere are those who argue that competitiveness is a requirement of economic growth and progress Lynn showed that the level of competitiveness among young people in a society is directly related to economic growthPrisoners dilemma game mutual competitiveness never paysconflict is a process that begins when one person or group perceives that another person or group takes action inconsistent with the perceivers interest organizational conflict stems from both organization based competition over scarce resources ambiguity over responsibility or jurisdiction and interpersonal factors personal characteristics faulty communicationalthough conflict often exerts negative effects on organizations interfering with communication and morale it sometimes produces positive outcomes These include bringing problems out into the open enhanced understanding of each others positions among adversaries increased consideration of new ideas better decisions and increased organizational commitmenta key task with respect to conflict is managing its occurrence deriving the benefits of conflict while minimizing its harmful effectsand not eliminating it entirelyresolving conflicts usually by bargaining or negotiating Or third party interventions such as mediation and arbitrationconflicts can also be resolved through escalative intervention actions that temporarily intensify current conflicts to resolve them more effectively To minimize interpersonal conflict between people of different racial and ethnic groups some companies have attempted to manage diversity such as bringing together people from different groups and allowing them to have successful work experiences together there are alternatives to cooperation and conflict such as compromise or accommodation or indeed avoidance of each other or other parties
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