• Marketing env.
The actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s
ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target customers.
• Consists of the actors close to the company.
• Watch for supply availability and costs
• Supply shortages, delays, strikes etc. can cost sales in S-R and damage customer satisfaction in L-R.
• Rising supply costs may cause price increase --> decrease sales volume
• Firms that help the company promote, sell and distribute its goods to final buyers.
• Distribution channel firms that help the company find customers or make sales to them. E.g.
wholesalers and retailers
Physical distribution firms
• Help the company stock and move goods from points of origin to destinations.
Marketing services agencies
• Banks, credit companies, insurance companies etc. that help finance transactions or insure against
the risks associated with the buying and selling of goods.
• Gain strategic adv. by positioning their offerings strongly against competitors’ offerings in the minds of
• Any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on org.’s ability to achieve its objectives.
• Influences the company’s ability to obtain funds.
• Management must take gov. developments into account.
• Marketers must often consult with lawyers on issues such as product safety, truth in advertising etc.
Citizen-action publics (activists)
• Neighborhood residents and community org.
• Workers, managers, volunteers, board of directors etc.
• Ind. and households that buy g+s for personal consumption
• Buy g+s for further processing or for use in their production process
• Buy g+s to resell at a profit
• Govt. agencies that buy g+s to produce public services or transfer the g+s to others who need them.
• All of the above but in foreign country. • 3.2
• The study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, gender,
race, occupation etc.
• Canada’s: 1947-1966; USA’s: 1946-1964
• Not a worldwide phenomenon, e.g. Europe and Japan
• Not phasing out, as they are retiring later and working more after retirement.
• 1967-1976 (“birth dearth”)
• Lie in the shadow of the boomers and lack obvious distinguishing characteristics.
• First generation of latchkey kids: high parental divorce rates and unemployment
• Grown up during recession and corp. downsizing --> cautious eco. outlook
Skeptical bunch --> less receptive to overt marketing pitches
• Behind in retirement saving
• Despite debts or tight budgets, they can’t think about saving.
• Care about env. and socially responsible companies.
• Ambitious, but less materialistic; prefer experience to acquisition
Generation Y / Millenials
• Includes tweens, teens and young adults
• Racially diverse
Fluency with technology
• Consumers for communication gadgets
• Economic env.
• Factors that affect consumer buying power and spending patterns