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Chapter 6

MGT252 - Chapter 6 Notes.doc

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Matthew Osborne

• 6.1 •Consumer buyer behavior The buying behavior of final consumers - ind., households that buy g+s for • personal consumption. • Consumer market •All the ind. and households who buy or acquire g+s for personal consumption. • 6.2 Cultural Social Personal Psychological Culture Reference groups Age and life cycle Motivation stage Subculture Family Occupation Perception Social class Roles and status Eco. situation Learning Lifestyle Beliefs and attitudes Personality and self-concept Cultural Culture • The set of basic values, perceptions, wants and behaviors learned by a member of society from family and other impt. institutions. • Marketers always try to spot cultural shifts Subculture • A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations Regional subcultures • Affected by landscape, immigration, economy and perceived disparities in political powers. Founding nations • Aboriginal peoples, the English and the French Ethnic consumers Mature consumers • Baby boomers are more willing to shop around and switch brands more than their gen x’ers. Social class • Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests and behaviors. • Not determined by a single factor; Measured by a combination of occupation, income, education, wealth etc. • In some social systems, members of diff. classes are reared for certain roles and cannot change their social positions. • People within a social class tend to have similar buying behavior. Social Groups and social networks • Group: 2 or more ppl who interact to accomplish ind. or mutual goals. • Influence a person’s behavior directly. • Membership groups: Grps that have a direct influence and to which a person belongs. • Aspirational groups: Ind. wishes to belong, e.g. fodder player wishes to play for AC MILAN. Opinion leader • A person within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality or other characteristics, exerts social influence on others. • 10% of this consumers --> the influentials / leading adopters • Buzz marketing: Enlisting or creating opinion leaders as ‘brand ambassadors’. Online social networks • Online social communities - blogs, social networking websites or virtual worlds - where ppl socialize or exchange info and opinions. • Hatch trends and build interests in specific products • To interact with consumers • Results difficult to measure and control; users control the content Family Roles and status • Role: The activities ppl are expected to perform according to those around them. Each role carries a status reflecting the general esteem given to it by society. • • Ppl choose products that are appropriate to their roles and status. Personal Age and life-cycle stage Occupation • Blue-collar workers tend to buy more rugged work clothes, while execs buy more business suits Eco. situation • For income-sensitive goods, watch trends in personal income, savings and interest rates. Lifestyle • A person’s pattern of living as expressed in his/her activities, interests and opinions. • Profiles a person’s whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world. • Consumers buy the values and lifestyles those products represent. Personality and self-concept • The unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one’s own environment. Usually described in terms of traits, e.g. dominance, autonomy, adaptability • • Consumers are likely to choose brands with personalities that match their own. Brand personality The specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand. • 1. Sincerity 2. Excitement 3. Competence 4. Sophistication 5. Ruggedness Self-concept / Self-image • Ppl’s possessions contribute to and reflect their identities; ‘we are what we have’. Psychological Motivation / Drive • A force that drives the person to seek satisfaction of the need. • Theories: Sigmund Freud & Abraham Maslow Sigmund Freud • People are largely unconscious about the real psychological forces shaping their behavior. • The person growing up, represses many urges. The repressed urges are not eliminated or under control and emerge in dreams, slips of the tongue, neurotic & obsessive behavior, or in psychoses. • The buying decision is affected by subconscious motives that the buyer may not fully understand. Motivation / interpretive consumer research • Qualitative research designed to probe consumers’ hidden, subconscious motivations. Abraham Maslow • Human needs are arranged in a hierarchy. • A person needs to first satisfy the more important need, before moving on to the next. As the former has stopped being a motivator. Psychological Perception • The process by which ppl select, organize, and interpret info. • Ppl can form diff. perceptions of the same stimulus due to 3 perceptual processes 1. Selective attention • Consumers screen out info • Marketers must work especially hard to attract consumer’s attention 2. Selective distortion • Ppl interpret info to support beliefs. 3. Selective retention • Ppl retain info to support attitudes. • Consumers tend to remember good points made about a brand they favor and to forget good points made about competing brands. Subliminal advertising • Some consumers worry that they will be affected by marketing messages without even knowing it. • Little to no link btw subliminal messages and consumer behavior. Psychological Learning • Changes in an ind.’s behavior arising from experience • When a firm with a marketing management orientation doesn’t strive to make immediate sale/profit. • Occurs through drives, stimuli, cues, responses and reinforcement • Induce learning via low prices, sampling programs, free trial, info advertising 1. Drives • Strong internal stimulus that calls for action • Becomes a motive when it is directed toward a stimulus object. 2. Stimulus object 3. Cues • Minor stimuli that determine when, where and how the person responds. • Cues might influence a consumer’s response to his/her interest in buying the product. 4. Responses 5. Reinforcement • If the consumer is happy with the product that he/she has bought, there’s a greater chance he/she will buy the same brand again. Beliefs and attitudes Belief • A descriptive thought about something • May be based on real knowledge, opinion or faith May or may not carry an emotional charge • • Make up a product and brand’s image Attitudes A person’s consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings and • tendenc
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