•Consumer buyer behavior
The buying behavior of final consumers - ind., households that buy g+s for
• Consumer market
•All the ind. and households who buy or acquire g+s for personal
Cultural Social Personal Psychological
Culture Reference groups Age and life cycle Motivation
Subculture Family Occupation Perception
Social class Roles and status Eco. situation Learning
Lifestyle Beliefs and
• The set of basic values, perceptions, wants and behaviors learned by a member of
society from family and other impt. institutions.
• Marketers always try to spot cultural shifts
• A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences
• Affected by landscape, immigration, economy and perceived disparities in political
• Aboriginal peoples, the English and the French
• Baby boomers are more willing to shop around and switch brands more than their
• Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share
similar values, interests and behaviors.
• Not determined by a single factor; Measured by a combination of occupation,
income, education, wealth etc.
• In some social systems, members of diff. classes are reared for certain roles and
cannot change their social positions.
• People within a social class tend to have similar buying behavior. Social
Groups and social networks
• Group: 2 or more ppl who interact to accomplish ind. or mutual goals.
• Influence a person’s behavior directly.
• Membership groups: Grps that have a direct influence and to which a person
• Aspirational groups: Ind. wishes to belong, e.g. fodder player wishes to play for AC
• A person within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge,
personality or other characteristics, exerts social influence on others.
• 10% of this consumers --> the influentials / leading adopters
• Buzz marketing: Enlisting or creating opinion leaders as ‘brand ambassadors’.
Online social networks
• Online social communities - blogs, social networking websites or virtual worlds -
where ppl socialize or exchange info and opinions.
• Hatch trends and build interests in specific products
• To interact with consumers
• Results difficult to measure and control; users control the content
Roles and status
• Role: The activities ppl are expected to perform according to those around them.
Each role carries a status reflecting the general esteem given to it by society.
• Ppl choose products that are appropriate to their roles and status. Personal
Age and life-cycle stage
• Blue-collar workers tend to buy more rugged work clothes, while execs buy more
• For income-sensitive goods, watch trends in personal income, savings and interest
• A person’s pattern of living as expressed in his/her activities, interests and opinions.
• Profiles a person’s whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world.
• Consumers buy the values and lifestyles those products represent.
Personality and self-concept
• The unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting
responses to one’s own environment.
Usually described in terms of traits, e.g. dominance, autonomy, adaptability
• Consumers are likely to choose brands with personalities that match their own.
The specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand.
Self-concept / Self-image
• Ppl’s possessions contribute to and reflect their identities; ‘we are what we have’. Psychological
Motivation / Drive
• A force that drives the person to seek satisfaction of the need.
• Theories: Sigmund Freud & Abraham Maslow
• People are largely unconscious about the real psychological forces shaping their
• The person growing up, represses many urges. The repressed urges are not
eliminated or under control and emerge in dreams, slips of the tongue, neurotic &
obsessive behavior, or in psychoses.
• The buying decision is affected by subconscious motives that the buyer may not fully
Motivation / interpretive consumer research
• Qualitative research designed to probe consumers’ hidden, subconscious
• Human needs are arranged in a hierarchy.
• A person needs to first satisfy the more important need, before moving on to the
next. As the former has stopped being a motivator. Psychological
• The process by which ppl select, organize, and interpret info.
• Ppl can form diff. perceptions of the same stimulus due to 3 perceptual processes
1. Selective attention
• Consumers screen out info
• Marketers must work especially hard to attract consumer’s attention
2. Selective distortion
• Ppl interpret info to support beliefs.
3. Selective retention
• Ppl retain info to support attitudes.
• Consumers tend to remember good points made about a brand they favor and to
forget good points made about competing brands.
• Some consumers worry that they will be affected by marketing messages without
even knowing it.
• Little to no link btw subliminal messages and consumer behavior. Psychological
• Changes in an ind.’s behavior arising from experience
• When a firm with a marketing management orientation doesn’t strive to make
• Occurs through drives, stimuli, cues, responses and reinforcement
• Induce learning via low prices, sampling programs, free trial, info advertising
• Strong internal stimulus that calls for action
• Becomes a motive when it is directed toward a stimulus object.
2. Stimulus object
• Minor stimuli that determine when, where and how the person responds.
• Cues might influence a consumer’s response to his/her interest in buying the
• If the consumer is happy with the product that he/she has bought, there’s a greater
chance he/she will buy the same brand again.
Beliefs and attitudes
• A descriptive thought about something
• May be based on real knowledge, opinion or faith
May or may not carry an emotional charge
• Make up a product and brand’s image
A person’s consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings and