Philosophy_Unit 1_Writing Philosophy_ ch1-5_Notes.docx

7 Pages
67 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Philosophy
Course
PHL105Y5
Professor
Jennifer Nagel
Semester
Fall

Description
Writing Philosophy Philosophy Notes: Ch. 1  What is philosophy? o A discipline, field of inquiry  Examines the most fundamental beliefs  Worldview o Is a set of fundamental ideas that help us make sense of a wide range of important issues in life  Defines for us what exists, what should be, what we can know  Argument o NOT a hearted disagreement. It is a statement or claim, couples w/ other statements that are meant to support it  Statement meant to be supported is the conclusion  Statement meant to do the supporting are the premises  Premises are meant to provide reasons for believing that conclusion is true. o Good arguments:  Gives us good reasons for accepting a conclusion o Bad arguments:  Fails to provide good reasons o Believing a statement for good reasons increases your chances of uncovering truth  Divisions of philosophy o Metaphysics  Study of reality  Fundamental nature of the universe & the things in it. Ex. is there a God? o Axiology  Study of value  Both aesthetic & moral value o Questions of interest: What makes an action right/wrong? (Page 6) o Epistemology  Study of knowledge  Questions of interest: Does knowledge require certainty? (Page 6) o Logic  Study of inference patterns.  Questions of interest: what is the nature & structure of deductive arguments? (Page 6)  Writing/Reading philosophy o Rule 1-1  Approach text w/ open mind o Rule 1-2  Read actively &critically  Cant be rushed, take your time o Rule 1-3  Identify the conclusion first, then the premises  Finding the main conclusion, thus find out the central point of the essay. Finding out the supporting premises become easier o Rule 1-4  Outline, paraphrase, or summarize the argument  In your own words! o Paraphrase; create own accurate replica of the argument (accurately encapsulate its main points) o Summary; paraphrase & condense (fewer words then the original) o Rule 1-5  Evaluate the argument & formulate a tentative judgment  Make an informed judgment about what you read o Assessment; whether the conclusion follows the premises & if the premises are true Ch. 2  How to read an argument o Arguments can gave more then one premise o Sometimes a premise or even the conclusion goes unstated  Indicator words o Conclusion  Consequently, thus, as a result (page 29) o Premise  In view of the fact, because, due to the fact that (Page 29) o These are telltale signs (do not guarantee the presence of conclusions & premises)  Judging Arguments o Rule 2-1  Know the basics of Deductive & Inductive arguments  Deductive arguments aim to offer logically conclusive support for their conclusions. o If this type of arg. Manages this task= valid (doesn’t mean true). If it fails= Invalid o Valid: Premises are true, Conclusion= True  If p, then q. p. Therefore, q. o Valid deductive arg. That has true premises= Sound  Inductive arguments intend to support their conclusions, but w/ less than 100% certainty. o If it succeeds in providing support = strong  Strong= the premise are true, it is probable (but not certain) that conclusion= true  Strong inductive arg. w/ true premises= cogent  A cogent inductive argument can have a false conclusion o If it files= weak  Weak= fails to provide such support o These arguments cannot guarantee the truth of their conclusions as deductive argument can o Inductive arg. Are evaluated as strong or weak o Rule 2-2  Determine whether the conclusion follows from the premises  If the conclusion doesn’t follow from the premises, the argument cant give you any good reasons to accept the conclusion (argument=bad even if the premise is true) [page 33]  If p, then q. p. Therefore, q.  This kind of argument (Argument 9/page 33) is known as Conditional (or Hypothetical)  Contains at least one conditional premise, which has an if-then structure: If p, then q. o The first half (the if part) is called the antecedent o The second part (the then part) is called the consequent  Valid Conditional Argument Forms: [page 35]  Affirming the Antecedent (Modus Ponens)
More Less

Related notes for PHL105Y5

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit