Globalization- Political Science 114 26/12/2012 9:28:00 PM
Globalization is an effect that is part of our everyday lives.
Term used to describe the increasing interconnection between
states, economies, and societies through telecommunications
technology, trade, and travel such that events in one part of the
world have repercussions in other parts of the world.
Ex) the United States attack in 2011, caused more discrimination towards
Central paradox: Convergence and Divergence
The definition of power is separated into 2 categories:
Hard power: refers to military hardware, technological capabilities,
and economic size.
Soft power: refers to the roles of ideas, persuasion, culture, and
innovation, which posses less tangible qualities.
An ideal perspective assumes the beast of human nature: we are essentially
cooperative beings who are occasionally led astray by evil influences into
war and conflict, and we have a natural affinity toward the communal, as
opposed to the individual, good.
When people behave violently, or when states go to war, it is because of the
institutional or structural setting in which they exist.
Human nature is essentially good.
Evil is not innate to humanity.
Social progress is possible.
The main problem in international relations is war.
War can be prevented.
International cooperation will promote peace.
Collective security system all states agree that in the case of aggression by
any state against any other state in the system, all other state would
respond to defend the attacked state.
Developed in the time of WW1
Developed in the time of WW2
People are generally viewed as self-interest creatures, and political
power merely corrupts them further. According to realism, military power is the most important
expression and guarantor of survival, and most important area in
the field is the threat or actual use of force.
Realpolitik: practical politics, but generally employed as a synonym for
power politic in the realist tradition.
The pursuit of power: the ability to make other actors do what they would
not otherwise do- was the core aim of international politics
People are essentially selfish and acquisitive by nature
The desire for power is instinctive to all individuals and cannot be
IR politics is a zero-sum: gain for one, loss for other,
International system is anarchic
States must self-help to ensure their own security
Military power and preparedness is the most important factor
determining state, power and security
Alliances increase security of state, but loyalty/reliability is
International organizations/law cannot be relied onto guarantee
Order can be achieved only by the balance of power system.
Classical Realist concentrate on the role of human nature
Structural Realists: emphasizes on anarchic nature of system, security
dilemma will be created when there is money spent on military capabilities
but no real gains of security.
Liberal Realists: states can cooperate will not cause chaos.
Form alliances and create/join international institutions
Anarchy does not mean complete absence of order.
Sovereignty: the principle that a state has control over affairs within its own
territory, free from external interference by other states.
Realists argue that soft power flows from hard power.
Liberal idealism/soft power.
Emphasize the importance of values such as liberty, private
property, rule of law, free markets, democracy, and justice is the
governance of domestic society.
Aim is to make the international system a society of state
o Governed with liberal democratic societies
Believe in cooperation: mutually beneficial Prosperity means peace -> communicating and cooperation with
other countries develop trust and mutual interest
o Less change of war through dialogue
States are not only important actors. Non-state actors such as
multi-national corps. Are significant sources of change?
State is in decline, borders are undistinguishable, gov’t has less
control over economic/social activity
Characterized by interdependence, not by anarchy
International institutions matter.
War and failed efforts at cooperation are the result of bad policies
Depend on soft power
o Attracts appeal or attractions of ideas/values, provides
opportunities to exert influence and leadership
Three Variants o