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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 from Global Politics

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Political Science

Globalization- Political Science 114 26/12/2012 9:33:00 PM The Rise and fall of Civilizations and Empires Patterns in the history of war and peace:  The reoccurrence of war and conflict between civilizations, peoples and empires.  The rise and fall of civilizations and empires.  The recorded political history of the world is primarily the history of the activities of great civilizations, empires, and states.  The development of an intellectual tradition of statecraft, drawn from historical experience.  The rise of political geography and geopolitics. Civilizations and war have a symbolic relationship; once individuals settled in a given area, and their survival becomes tied to the land around them, the idea of ownership and the protective instinct become very strong.  Roman empire, the rise and fall After it fell, northern and southern European countries took over other countries. Feudal system/feudalism: the legal and social system that evolved in Western Europe in the 8 thand 9 thcenturies, in which vassals were protected and maintained by their lords, usually through the granting of fiefs, and were required to serve them in war.  Karl Marx said that development of feudalism was an important step in the evolution of society towards capitalism, which in turn was a step towards communism. Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) General Europeans war was fought mainly in Germany: petty German princes and foreign powers (France, Sweden, Denmark, England) against the Holy Roman Empire (Hapsburgs in Austria, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain); also a religious war of Protestants against Catholics. Ended with the Treaty of Westphalia.  There were many wars and the expansion of the religion, Islam was introduced and started to dominate certain countries after the fall of Rome especially when the Ottoman Empire started expanding all around the Black Sea, it was lead by the Suleiman the Magnificent.  It was one of the greatest empires in the world, but the Mughal Empire in India clashed with Ottoman cause political harm which. However, the Ottoman empire stayed in power till WW1.tutor Tutorial Notes:  Rise of empires/civilizations/great powers  War is permanent, peace is temporary  History is made by the strong powers/ winners, than weaker powers. o Winner was seen as a positive force  Rising importance of geo-politics  Rise of intellectual tradition in understandability of international relations Modern State: The term state refers to these qualities: 1) Diplomatic recognition is needed when another state of country is claiming a country that it wants to claim.  5 countries of the UN nation recognize you as a country or a defined territory. 2) Defined territory/recognized borders. 3) Permanent population 4) They are sovereign with respect to other states 5) Monopoly on the legitimate use of force Peace of Westphalia: - The modern international system is often called the Westphalian state system. It ended the 30-year war and established a new order in Europe.  Foundation of the modern state.  Stopped the war of religion “Christianity”  It established the constitutional, legal status of states as territorial entities.  Sovereign state: to be free from foreign interference in its domestic affairs, it is also recognized by the UN.  The territorial state was sovereign, it was free to determine and practice its domestic affairs meaning the religious domination followed by the ruler and the people were free from external interference.  The beginning of supremacy of the state marked the year 1648 in European affairs. They introduced the peace of Westphalia for 2 reasons: 1. The power of the church had been weakened by split of Christendom because of the Reformation time, and revealed the fragility of Christian Europe because at the time there were kingly states and authoritative powers were the kings.  The kingly states were under the authority of the Pope or the Holy Roman Emperor; different Christian denominations would try and convert them because the interference in domestic politics was common. 2. Some monarchs of medieval Europe had been slowly increasing economic and military power, which enabled them to expand their territories by conquering less powerful political units. It was introduced to help the rulers exert control over their territories and subjects, which derived from the monarchs. The Rise of the European Empires; European Imperialism:  Holy Roman Empire had fragments into some 300 small principalities and city-states, which were vulnerable to conquest.  Great Britain had the English Channel as their territory, Russian empire under Peter and Catherine the Great expanded borders into Prussia and Austria. Ottoman empire to the south and China and the Pacific Ocean to the east. The French revolution occurred in 1789-94 that introduced equality before law, the abolition of feudalism, and the “rights of man.” Sparked the beginning of modern nationalism. Nationalism: a sense of shared identity among a group of people, especially to an ideology of attachment to a nation and to its shared interests. The other wars included the Napoléon wars that defeated the Prussian and Austrian army, he tried to invade Russia but he destroyed the Grand Army and could not conquer Britain, which led to his defeat by the French.  Concert of Europe, Congress of Vienna and Crimean War all came about and went.  American independence was gained in 1783 and the world basically went back to paying attention to their own countries. Where the American Civil War interrupted the territorial expansion of United States. They had the Philippines, parts of Russia, Hawaii and etc.  United States became one of the world’s leading powers.  Then China became the most populous empire but due to economic and political decay it was vulnerable and remained to the Western powers. World War One World War I began on July 28, 1914, when
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