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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 from Global Politics

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science

International Institutions and Law 26/12/2012 9:36:00 PM Global Governance: Regulation of interdependent relations between and amoung states, market, citizens, organizations, and other non-state transnational actors through development of institutions, law and other formal or informal mechanisms of cooperation.  Liberal institutionalists view IO’s and international regimes as solutions to market failure problems, reducing uncertainty and promoting further cooperation;  Realists- less enthusiastic about purpose and prospects of international institutions and law, which they view primarily as vessels or forums for pursuit of national interests  Neo- Marxist & Gramscians- important elements of “superstructure: of capitalist system can de found at IO & IL level  Global governance refers to efforts to manage common actions problems with decentralized yet coordinated political authority and regulation 2 types of IOs exist:  Intergovernmental Organizations: IGOs created by treaties under state and composed of member states  Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) IGOs shares # of characteristics: 1. Comprise states and only states 2. IGOs created by treaties between states and, therefore, have legal standing under IL 3. Hold regular meetings attended by delegates from member states 4. IGOs have permanent headquarters and an executive secretariat that runs day-to-day activities of organization 5. Have permanent administrative employees who work for organization and don’t represent their governments; they are international bureaucrats Several types United Nations:  Multipurpose, universal-membership organization  Serves as many functions and can be joined by all sated in international system: issue areas such as international and civil war, technology, gender roles, humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, literacy, human rights, disarmament, decolonization and pollution. European/ European Community (EC)- most famous regional IGO International Organization & Regimes in History  The League & UN established for 2 primary reasons: o Practicality- as nation-state system was established and contacts expanded, governments would have maintain linkages that facilitated communication & coordination o IOS can serve broader purpose, such as establishment or maintenance of world order and peace. The League of Nations  Created end of WWI inspired by idealism  Associated hope for world free from war  2 basic principles underlay system of peace maintenance: o Members agreed to respect 7 preserve territorial integrity & political independence of other states o Any war or threat of war was considered matter of concern to entire League  Major emphasis on maintaining international peace & stability; Also recognized for promoting economic & social cooperation  League organization centered around 3 major organs: o Assembly- all member-states belonged o Council- selected few belonged o Secretariat o Main deliberative organs >> Each state possessed 1 vote  Member League established Permanent Court of International Justice in 1921 to resolve disputes between members of international community as a whole  Council primarily responsible for discussing maintenance of peace  Reasons for League’s demise: o Absence of United States, during shorter periods, absence of Soviet Union and Germany o Collapse can be linked to inherent deficiencies of its Covenant o Such as Japan and Ethiopia, it appeared to be lack of political will amoung members of League o Aggressive foreign policies of Axis powers made successful League impossible  League of Nations officially disbanded in April 1946 United Nations Organization  Plans to create UN began during WWI  Committee of jurists representing virtually all states that would attend San Francisco conference discussed creation of an International Court of Justice (ICI), which would replace Permanent Court of International Justice established under League of Nations  Although initial hopes for organization were high (especially in Canada), superpower confrontation effectively paralyzed UN’s capacity to mount collective security effort UN has 6 principle organs  General Assembly (GA): Democratic core of UN, in which all 192 members states are equally represented o GA also makes key decisions regarding who gets to joining organization, what Economic and Social Council does and spending powers of organization o Assembly and Security Council jointly responsible of electing International Court of Justice judges  Security Council: 15 states (5 permanent members) sit on chief collective security organ of UN o 5 permanent members: People Republic of China, France, Russian, Federation, United Kingdom & United States o 10 non-permanent members elected by General Assembly o Security Council primary organ dealing with questions of international peace & security & in particular collective security  Economic & Social Council (ECOSOC): Established under UN Charter as principal organ to coordinate economic, social, and related work of 14 UN specialized agencies, UN functional commissions, and 5 UN regional commissions o Comprises 54 members elected by GA for term of 3 years  Trusteeship Council: Originally 1 of main organs of UN, authorized to examine and discuss political, economic social, and educational advancement of peoples of Trust Territories o Now inactive  Secretariat: Administrative organ of UN, headed by Secretary- General; more generally, the administrative branch of any international organization  International Court of Justice (ICI): World Court, sits in the Hague, Netherlands; 15 judges Operates in state of permanent financial crisis:  Annual regular budget approximately US 1.965 billion per year  Entire UN systems spends approximately US 15 billion per year Ultimately, UN can be only as effective as it members want it to be Many political leaders (
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