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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 summary


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Chapter
11

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Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
I. Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development
A.Introduction
1. Development – the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person
progresses from conception to death. Incl both biological and behavioral
changes.
2. Zygote – a one celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg.
3. Prenatal Period – period from conception to birth, aprox. 9 months, marked by
rapid development, until tapering off before birth.
B. The Course of Prenatal Development
1. Germinal Stage – first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first
2 weeks after conception.
a.Begins when zygote is created through fertilization.
b. Placenta – structure that allows oxygen and other nutrients to pass into
the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to
the mother. Takes place during implantation process.
2. Embryonic Stage – second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2
weeks until the end of the second month.
a.Most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing
organism known as an embryo.
b. Heart, spine, brain form
3. Fetal Stage – the 3rd stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months
through birth.
a.Rapid bodily growth, muscles and bones begin to form.
b. Known as a fetus.
c.Age of Viability – the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a
premature birth (i.e. 22-26 weeks)
C. Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development
1. Maternal Nutrition – severe maternal malnutrition can lead to increases in the
birth complications and neurological defects of a newborn.
2. Maternal Drug Use – major source of concern about fetal and infant well
being, as many drugs consumed by a pregnant women can be passed on to the
placenta.
a.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – collection of congenital (inborn) problems
associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. Incl.
hyperactivity, retarded mental and motor development.
3. Maternal Illness – fetus is defenseless against infections because its immune
system matures relatively late in the prenatal period. May incl. AIDS, Flu, etc.
4. Prenatal Health Care – good quality medical care that begins early in
pregnancy is associated with reduce prematurity and higher survival rates for
infants.
II. The Wondrous Years of Childhood
A.Exploring the World: Motor Development
1. Motor Development – refers to the progression of muscular coordination
required for physical activities.
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Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
2. Basic Principles
a.Cephalocaudal trend – the head to foot direction of motor development.
i.e. children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies
before the lower part.
b. Proximodistal trend – center-outward direction of motor development.
i.e. children gain control of their torso before their extremities.
c.Early motor development depends on physical growth and maturation.
d. Maturation – the development that reflects the gradual unfolding of
one’s genetic blueprint. Product of genetically programmed physical
changes that come with age.
3. Understanding Developmental Norms
a.Developmental Norms – indicate the median age at which individuals
display various behaviors and abilities. Useful benchmarks.
4. Cultural Variations and Their Significance
a.Highlights the relationship between experience and maturation – i.e.
practice.
b. Early motor development depends on maturation. Later motor
development acquire more specialized motor skills which may be unique
to their culture.
B. Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament
1. Temperament – characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity.
2. Longitudinal Design – investigators observe one group of participants
repeatedly over a period of time. More sensitive to developmental influences
and changes.
3. Cross Sectional Design – investigators compare groups of participants of
differing age at a single point in time. Quicker, easier, and cheaper.
4. Thomas and Chess – found that temperamental individuality is established by
the time the infant is 2-3 months old. 3 Basic Styles:
a.Easy Children – tend to be happy, regular in sleep, eating, adaptable, not
readily upset
b. Slow to Warm Up Children – tended to be less cheery, less regular in
sleep and eating, slower in adapting to change. Wary of new
experiences, and emotional reactivity is moderate
c.Difficult children – glum, erratic in sleep and eating, resistant to change,
and relatively irritable.
d. Child’s temperament at 3 months was good indicator of later
temperament.
5. Kagan – relied on direct observation of children in study of temperaments
a.Inhibited Temperament – shyness, timidity, wariness of unfamiliar
people, objects and events.
b. Uninhibited Temperament – less restrained, approaching unfamiliar
people, objects, and events with little hesitation.
c.Reasonably stable.
C. Early Emotional Development: Attachment
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Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
1. Attachment – the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between
infants and their caregivers.
2. Between 6-8 months, infants begin to show a preference for mum’s company.
And often protest when separated.
3. Separation Anxiety – emotional distress seen in many infants when they have
formed an attachment. Peaks around 14-18 months.
4. Patterns of Attachment
a.Mothers who are sensitive and responsive to their child’s needs tend to
evoke more secure attachments than mums who don’t.
b. Ainsworth – found that infant mother attachments follow 3 patterns
i.Secure attachment – play and explore with comfortably with mum
present, become visibly upset when she leaves and are quickly
calmed by her return
ii.Anxious Ambivalent Attachment – appear anxious even when their
mum is near and protest excessively when she leaves, but they are
not particularly comforted when she returns.
iii.Avoidant Attachment – seek little contact with their mothers and
often are not distressed when she leaves.
5. Effects of Secure Attachment – infants who are securely attached to mums
tend to exhibit secure attachments with father, be more resilient, competent
toddlers with high self esteem, display more patience, curiosity, self reliance
and leadership, social skills, close friends.
a.Relationship between secure attachment and more advanced cognitive
development in childhood and adolescence.
6. Bonding at Birth, Day Care, and Attachment -
a.Klaus – suggests skin to skin contact between a new born and its mum
after birth can promote more effective attachment later.
b. Difficult to demonstrate.
7. Culture and Attachment – Attachment is a universal feature of human
development.
8. Evolutionary Perspectives on Attachment
a.Bowlby assumed attachment to be part of natural selection, as infants are
biologically programmed to emit behavior that triggers an affectionate
protective response from parents.
b. Belsky – nature of children’s early attachment experiences depend on
the character of their environments, and that these experiences chart the
course of children’s social development in ways that are adaptive for
their environmental circumstances.
D.Becoming Unique: Personality Development
1. Freud – claimed basic foundation of a person’s personality is laid down by
age 5.
2. Erikson – concluded that events in early childhood leave a permanent stamp
on adult personality, but continues to evolve over entire life.
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