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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 textbook summary


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Chapter
1

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Oct/4/2003 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 1: THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY
Psychology Notes # 1
Psychologists study:
-Acrophobia (fear of heights)
-Zoophobia (fear of animals)
-fighting
-mating
-how hormones affect the brain.
Psychology” comes from two Greek words
Psyche-soul logos- study
The study of the mind
-intellectual parents of psychology are the disciplines of philosophy and physiology.
-Wilhelm Wundt- German professor (1832) distinguished psychology as a independent
discipline and not a stepladder of philosophy and physiology.
-Thus Wilhelm Wundt is known as the founder of psychology.
-1879 first university in research of psychology in Leipzig. Hence historians have stated
that 1879 is the year of birth for psychology.
According to Wundt:
-Primary focus of psychology was consciousness- the awareness of immediate
experience.
-Between 1883 and 1893 about 24 new psychological laboratories were discovered
by Wilhelm’s students.
-G Stanley Hall (1846-1924) studied with Wilhelm and important to the
contribution of psychology in USA.
-Hall established America’s first research laboratory in psychology at Johns
Hopking University in 1883.
-Driving force behind American psychology association(APA)
-Worlds largest organization with over 155, 000 members
Battle of the “schools begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism
-First two major schools of thought were structuralism and functionalism
entangled in psychology’s first great intellectual battle.
Structuralism- emerged through the leadership of Edward Titcher
-Englishman who earned his degree under Wilhelm wundt Leipzig laboratory.
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Oct/4/2003 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 1: THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY
Structuralism
-Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into
its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related.
- How hearing is related to smelling/ How they connect with one another
Introspection- systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience.
Functionalism
-based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of
consciousness, rather than its structure.
William James
-had a career in medicine but joined a faculty in Harvard university to peruse a
career in academia.
-Wrote a book principals of psychology (1890)
-Did not support structuralists
-Functionalists were more interested in how people adapt their behavior in the real
world around them.
Mary Whiton Calkins (1863 1930)
-Studied under William James
-First woman to serve as president of the American psychological association in
1905.
Margaret Floy Washburn(1871-1939)
-First woman to receive a P.H.D in psychology.
-Wrote a book called The Animal Mind.
-Second president of the American Psychological Association in 1921.
Leta Stetter Hollingworth(1886-1939)
-Mental work on adolescent development, mental retardation, and gifted children.
-First person to use the term gifted to refer youngsters who scored high on
intelligence tests.
John B. Watson
Stated: behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific
psychology should study only observable behavior.
-Wanted scientists to study behavior they could observe directly rather than
consciousness.
-Watson meant that scientific approach can always be disproved, and his method
of studying behavior would be the most objective.
Behavior- refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism.
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Oct/4/2003 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 1: THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY
-believed that behavior is not determined by genetics and is rather made through
the environment we live around.
-Behaviorists eventually came to study and view psychology as studying it by relating
behavior with observable events environment.
Stimulus- any detectable input from the environment
-started to use animals in laboratories and studying their behaviors because the
researches would have more control over the subjects.
*Humans can request to go home at night, whereas animals can be kept in the laboratory
as long as desired.
Unconscious mental processes
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - Austrian physician
-wanted to treat mental disorder
-Treated people with psychological difficulties with a procedure referred to as
psychoanalysis.
-Stated that psychological disturbances are caused by personal conflicts existing at
a unconscious level.
-Psychoanalytic theory attempted to explain personality, motivation, and mental
disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
B.F Skinner
-Supported John. B Watson on studying behaviorism of psychology
-Believed that internal mental events could not be studied scientifically and
therefore there was no reason to study them.
-Believed that environmental factors mold behavior but also acknowledged that the
biological endowment influences behavior.
-Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and hey tend
not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes.
-All behavior is determined by external stimuli, and no actions are a result of
conscious decisions.
The Humanists Revolt
-Psychoanalytic theory criticized for its belief that behavior is dominated by
primitive sexual urges and behaviorism was criticized for its preoccupation with
the study of simple animal behavior.
-New school of thought calledhumanism
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