Chapter 1 textbook summary

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Published on 31 May 2011
School
UTM
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100Y5
Professor
Oct/4/2003 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 1: THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY
Psychology Notes # 1
Psychologists study:
-Acrophobia (fear of heights)
-Zoophobia (fear of animals)
-fighting
-mating
-how hormones affect the brain.
Psychology” comes from two Greek words
Psyche-soul logos- study
The study of the mind
-intellectual parents of psychology are the disciplines of philosophy and physiology.
-Wilhelm Wundt- German professor (1832) distinguished psychology as a independent
discipline and not a stepladder of philosophy and physiology.
-Thus Wilhelm Wundt is known as the founder of psychology.
-1879 first university in research of psychology in Leipzig. Hence historians have stated
that 1879 is the year of birth for psychology.
According to Wundt:
-Primary focus of psychology was consciousness- the awareness of immediate
experience.
-Between 1883 and 1893 about 24 new psychological laboratories were discovered
by Wilhelm’s students.
-G Stanley Hall (1846-1924) studied with Wilhelm and important to the
contribution of psychology in USA.
-Hall established America’s first research laboratory in psychology at Johns
Hopking University in 1883.
-Driving force behind American psychology association(APA)
-Worlds largest organization with over 155, 000 members
Battle of the “schools begins: Structuralism versus Functionalism
-First two major schools of thought were structuralism and functionalism
entangled in psychology’s first great intellectual battle.
Structuralism- emerged through the leadership of Edward Titcher
-Englishman who earned his degree under Wilhelm wundt Leipzig laboratory.
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Oct/4/2003 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 1: THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY
Structuralism
-Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into
its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related.
- How hearing is related to smelling/ How they connect with one another
Introspection- systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience.
Functionalism
-based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of
consciousness, rather than its structure.
William James
-had a career in medicine but joined a faculty in Harvard university to peruse a
career in academia.
-Wrote a book principals of psychology (1890)
-Did not support structuralists
-Functionalists were more interested in how people adapt their behavior in the real
world around them.
Mary Whiton Calkins (1863 1930)
-Studied under William James
-First woman to serve as president of the American psychological association in
1905.
Margaret Floy Washburn(1871-1939)
-First woman to receive a P.H.D in psychology.
-Wrote a book called The Animal Mind.
-Second president of the American Psychological Association in 1921.
Leta Stetter Hollingworth(1886-1939)
-Mental work on adolescent development, mental retardation, and gifted children.
-First person to use the term gifted to refer youngsters who scored high on
intelligence tests.
John B. Watson
Stated: behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific
psychology should study only observable behavior.
-Wanted scientists to study behavior they could observe directly rather than
consciousness.
-Watson meant that scientific approach can always be disproved, and his method
of studying behavior would be the most objective.
Behavior- refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism.
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Oct/4/2003 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 1: THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY
-believed that behavior is not determined by genetics and is rather made through
the environment we live around.
-Behaviorists eventually came to study and view psychology as studying it by relating
behavior with observable events environment.
Stimulus- any detectable input from the environment
-started to use animals in laboratories and studying their behaviors because the
researches would have more control over the subjects.
*Humans can request to go home at night, whereas animals can be kept in the laboratory
as long as desired.
Unconscious mental processes
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - Austrian physician
-wanted to treat mental disorder
-Treated people with psychological difficulties with a procedure referred to as
psychoanalysis.
-Stated that psychological disturbances are caused by personal conflicts existing at
a unconscious level.
-Psychoanalytic theory attempted to explain personality, motivation, and mental
disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
B.F Skinner
-Supported John. B Watson on studying behaviorism of psychology
-Believed that internal mental events could not be studied scientifically and
therefore there was no reason to study them.
-Believed that environmental factors mold behavior but also acknowledged that the
biological endowment influences behavior.
-Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and hey tend
not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes.
-All behavior is determined by external stimuli, and no actions are a result of
conscious decisions.
The Humanists Revolt
-Psychoanalytic theory criticized for its belief that behavior is dominated by
primitive sexual urges and behaviorism was criticized for its preoccupation with
the study of simple animal behavior.
-New school of thought calledhumanism
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Document Summary

Psyche-soul logos- study: the study of the mind. Intellectual parents of psychology are the disciplines of philosophy and physiology. Wilhelm wundt- german professor (1832) distinguished psychology as a independent discipline and not a stepladder of philosophy and physiology. Thus wilhelm wundt is known as the founder of psychology. 1879 first university in research of psychology in leipzig. Hence historians have stated that 1879 is the year of birth for psychology. Primary focus of psychology was consciousness- the awareness of immediate experience. Between 1883 and 1893 about 24 new psychological laboratories were discovered by wilhelm"s students. G stanley hall (1846-1924) studied with wilhelm and important to the contribution of psychology in usa. Hall established america"s first research laboratory in psychology at johns. Worlds largest organization with over 155, 000 members. Battle of the schools begins: structuralism versus functionalism. First two major schools of thought were structuralism and functionalism entangled in psychology"s first great intellectual battle.