-Three key processes involved in memory are encoding (getting information in), storage
(maintaining it), and retrieval (getting it out).
-Encoding involves forming a memory code
-Encoding usually requires attention
-Storage involves maintaining encoding information in memory over time
-Retrieval involves recovering information from memory stores
-Just as memory involves more than storage, forgetting involves more than “losing” something
from the memory store
-Forgetting may be due to deficiencies in encoding, storage, or retrieval
Encoding: Getting Information into Memory
-Like the problem of forgetting people’s names just after you’ve met them, the next-in-line effect
illustrates that active encoding is a crucial process in memory
The Role of Attention
-Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.
-Attention is often likened to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a
select few to pass thorough into conscious awareness.
-There is debate weather stimuli are screened out early, during sensory input, or late, after the
brain has processed the meaning or significance of the input
-Attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of input.
-However scientific evidence has found evidence on both early selection and late selection along
with intermediate selection
-Theorists conclude that the location of the attention filter may be flexible rather than fixed
-Studies indicate that when participants are forced to divide their attention between memory
encoding and some other task, large reductions in memory performance are seen
Levels of Processing
-Attention is critical to the encoding of memories, but not all attention is created equal.
-Different rates of forgetting occur because some methods of encoding create more durable
memory codes than others
-Structural encoding is relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of
-Phonemic encoding emphasizes what a word sounds like.
-Semantic encoding emphasizes the meaning of verbal input; it involves thinking about the
objects and the actions the words represent
-Levels-of processing theory proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting
-The hypothesis that deeper processing leads to enhanced memory has been replicated in many
-Semantic encoding can often be enhanced through a process called elaboration
-Elaboration is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
-Elaboration often consists of thinking of examples that illustrate an idea
-Additional examples led to better memory
-imagery (the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered) can also be
used to enrich encoding
-easier to form images of concrete objects (the word Juggler) than abstract concepts than
abstract concepts (the word truth)
-high imagery words are easier to remember than low-imagery words.
-Imagery facilitates memory because it provides a second kind of memory code (two codes are
better than one)
-Dual coding theory holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes,
since either can lead to recall.
-making material personally meaningful can also enrich encoding
-People’s recall of information tends to be slanted in favor of material that is personally relevant.
-Self-referent encoding involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant
-Self-referent encoding appears to enhance recall by promoting additional elaboration and better
organization of information
Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
-incoming information passes through two temporary storage buffers- the sensory store and the
short-term store- before it is transferred into a long-term store.
-The three memory stores are not viewed as anatomical structures in the brain but rather as
functionally distinct types of memory.
-The sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually
only a fraction of a second.
-Sensory memory allows the sensation of a visual pattern, sound, or touch to linger for a brief
moment after the sensory stimulation is over
-The brief preservation of sensations in sensory memory gives you additional time to try to
-short-term memory (STM) is a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed
information for up to about 20 seconds
-can enhance short term memory by rehearsal0 the process of repetitively verbalizing or
thinking about the information.
-Rehearsal keeps recycling the information through your short-term memory
Durability of Storage
-Without rehearsal, information in short-term memory is lost in less than 20 seconds
-Loss of information from short-term memory was due purely to time-related decay of memory
traces, but follow-up research showed that interference from competing material also contributes.
Capacity of Storage
-Short-term memory is limited in the number of items it can hold
-Miller noticed that people could recall only about seven items in tasks that require them to
remember unfamiliar material.
-Limited capacity of STM constrains people’s ability to perform tasks in which they need to
mentally juggle various pieces of f information
-Combining stimuli into larger, possibly higher-order units, called chunks can increase the
capacity of short term memory
-A chunk is a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
-People routinely draw information out of their long-term memory banks to evaluate and
understand information that they are working with in short-term memory.
Short-Term Memory as “working memory”
-short-term memory involves more than a simple rehearsal buffer, as originally envisioned
-short term memory characterized as working memory
-1) phonological rehearsal loop represents all of STM in earlier models
-2) visuospatial sketchpad permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images
-3) executive control system controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of
attention and dividing attention as needed
-4) Episodic buffer is a temporary, limited capacity store that allows the various components of
working memory to integrate information and that serves as an interface between working
memory and long-term memory.
Three key processes involved in memory are encoding (getting information in), storage (maintaining it), and retrieval (getting it out). Storage involves maintaining encoding information in memory over time. Retrieval involves recovering information from memory stores. Just as memory involves more than storage, forgetting involves more than losing something from the memory store. Forgetting may be due to deficiencies in encoding, storage, or retrieval. Like the problem of forgetting people"s names just after you"ve met them, the next-in-line effect illustrates that active encoding is a crucial process in memory. Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. Attention is often likened to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass thorough into conscious awareness. There is debate weather stimuli are screened out early, during sensory input, or late, after the brain has processed the meaning or significance of the input. Attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of input.