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Chapter 7

Textbook summary chapter 7

Course Code
Dax Urbszat

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Chapter 7
Human Memory
-Three key processes involved in memory are encoding (getting information in), storage
(maintaining it), and retrieval (getting it out).
-Encoding involves forming a memory code
-Encoding usually requires attention
-Storage involves maintaining encoding information in memory over time
-Retrieval involves recovering information from memory stores
-Just as memory involves more than storage, forgetting involves more thanlosing” something
from the memory store
-Forgetting may be due to deficiencies in encoding, storage, or retrieval
Encoding: Getting Information into Memory
-Like the problem of forgetting peoples names just after youve met them, the next-in-line effect
illustrates that active encoding is a crucial process in memory
The Role of Attention
-Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.
-Attention is often likened to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a
select few to pass thorough into conscious awareness.
-There is debate weather stimuli are screened out early, during sensory input, or late, after the
brain has processed the meaning or significance of the input
-Attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of input.
-However scientific evidence has found evidence on both early selection and late selection along
with intermediate selection
-Theorists conclude that the location of the attention filter may be flexible rather than fixed
-Studies indicate that when participants are forced to divide their attention between memory
encoding and some other task, large reductions in memory performance are seen
Levels of Processing
-Attention is critical to the encoding of memories, but not all attention is created equal.
-Different rates of forgetting occur because some methods of encoding create more durable
memory codes than others
-Structural encoding is relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of
the stimulus
-Phonemic encoding emphasizes what a word sounds like.
-Semantic encoding emphasizes the meaning of verbal input; it involves thinking about the
objects and the actions the words represent
-Levels-of processing theory proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting
memory codes

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-The hypothesis that deeper processing leads to enhanced memory has been replicated in many
Enriching Encoding
-Semantic encoding can often be enhanced through a process called elaboration
-Elaboration is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
-Elaboration often consists of thinking of examples that illustrate an idea
-Additional examples led to better memory
Visual Imagery
-imagery (the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered) can also be
used to enrich encoding
-easier to form images of concrete objects (the word Juggler) than abstract concepts than
abstract concepts (the word truth)
-high imagery words are easier to remember than low-imagery words.
-Imagery facilitates memory because it provides a second kind of memory code (two codes are
better than one)
-Dual coding theory holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes,
since either can lead to recall.
Self-Referent Encoding
-making material personally meaningful can also enrich encoding
-Peoples recall of information tends to be slanted in favor of material that is personally relevant.
-Self-referent encoding involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant
-Self-referent encoding appears to enhance recall by promoting additional elaboration and better
organization of information
Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
-incoming information passes through two temporary storage buffers- the sensory store and the
short-term store- before it is transferred into a long-term store.
-The three memory stores are not viewed as anatomical structures in the brain but rather as
functionally distinct types of memory.
Sensory memory
-The sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually
only a fraction of a second.

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-Sensory memory allows the sensation of a visual pattern, sound, or touch to linger for a brief
moment after the sensory stimulation is over
-The brief preservation of sensations in sensory memory gives you additional time to try to
recognize stimuli
Short-Term memory
-short-term memory (STM) is a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed
information for up to about 20 seconds
-can enhance short term memory by rehearsal0 the process of repetitively verbalizing or
thinking about the information.
-Rehearsal keeps recycling the information through your short-term memory
Durability of Storage
-Without rehearsal, information in short-term memory is lost in less than 20 seconds
-Loss of information from short-term memory was due purely to time-related decay of memory
traces, but follow-up research showed that interference from competing material also contributes.
Capacity of Storage
-Short-term memory is limited in the number of items it can hold
-Miller noticed that people could recall only about seven items in tasks that require them to
remember unfamiliar material.
-Limited capacity of STM constrains peoples ability to perform tasks in which they need to
mentally juggle various pieces of f information
-Combining stimuli into larger, possibly higher-order units, called chunks can increase the
capacity of short term memory
-A chunk is a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
-People routinely draw information out of their long-term memory banks to evaluate and
understand information that they are working with in short-term memory.
Short-Term Memory asworking memory”
-short-term memory involves more than a simple rehearsal buffer, as originally envisioned
-short term memory characterized as working memory
-1) phonological rehearsal loop represents all of STM in earlier models
-2) visuospatial sketchpad permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images
-3) executive control system controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of
attention and dividing attention as needed
-4) Episodic buffer is a temporary, limited capacity store that allows the various components of
working memory to integrate information and that serves as an interface between working
memory and long-term memory.
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