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Chapter 15

PSY100Y5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Diazepam, Eclecticism In Art, Electroconvulsive Therapy

Course Code
Ayesha Khan

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The Elements of the Treatment Process
Treatments: How Many Types Are There?
Psychotherapists use many treatment methods that include discussion, advice, emotional
support, persuasion, condition procedures, relaxation training, role-playing, drug therapy,
biofeedback, and group therapy
(1) Insight Therapy is a “talk therapy” in the tradition of Freud’s psychoanalysis
o Clients engage in complex verbal interactions with the therapist.
o Goal pursue increased insight regarding the nature of client’s difficulties and
sort through possible solutions
o i.e. Family/Marital Therapy
(2) Behavior Therapy based on principles of learning.
o Make direct efforts to alter problematic responses (i.e. phobias) and maladaptive
habits (i.e. drug use)
o Involves classical, operant and observational learning
(3) Biomedical Therapies involve interventions into a person’s biological functioning,
through drug and electroconvulsive (shock) therapy
o These treatments have been provided only by physicians with a medical degree
Clients: Who Seeks Therapy
The two most common presenting problems are excessive anxiety and depression
A client does not necessarily have an identifiable psychological disorder
Reason’s people don’t pursue treatment – cost, lack of insurance, stigma (personal
Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment?
Psychology and psychiatry are the principal professions involved in the provision of
psychotherapy (refers to professional treatment with special training)
o 2 Types clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists specialize in the
diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral
o Clinical treatment of full fledged disorders.
o Counseling treatment of everyday adjustment problems in normal people.
o Must earn doctoral degree.
o Psychologists more likely to use behavioral techniques.
o Psychiatrist physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of
psychological disorders
o Treat everyday behavioural problem and devote more time to severe disorders
(schizophrenia, mood disorders)
o MD Degree
Other Mental Health Professionals
o Hospitals clinical social workers, psychiatrist nurses as part of a team.
o Counselors schools, colleges etc. marital/drug counseling.
Insight Therapies
Involve verbal interactions intended to enhance the client’s self-knowledge and thus
promote healthful changes in personality and behavior

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Psychoanalysis an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious,
conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and
Freud neurotic problems are caused by unconscious conflicts left over from early
o He mostly treated anxiety-dominated disturbances ie. phobic, panic, obsessive-
compulsive and conversion disorders
o Inner conflicts involves battles among the Id, ego, and superego
o He noted that defensive maneuvers lead to self-defeating behavior
o He asserted that defenses tend to be only partially successful in alleviating
anxiety, guilt and other distressing emotions
Probing the Unconscious two techniques
o Attempts to probe the murky depths of the unconscious to discover the
unresolved conflicts causing the client’s neurotic behavior
o Free Association clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings
exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible
o Dream Analysis therapist interprets symbolic meaning of the client’s dreams.
Interpretation refers to the therapist’s attempts to explain the inner significance of the
Resistance largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of
Transference clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic
critical relationships in their live
o The client transfers conflicting feelings about important people onto the therapist
Modern Psychodynamic Therapies based on Jung, Adler, etc.
o Other central features of modern psychodynamic therapies include:
(1) Focus on emotional experience
(2) Exploration of efforts to avoid distressing thoughts and feelings
(3) Identification of recurring patterns in patients’ life experiences
(4) Discussion of past experience, especially event in early childhood
(5) Analysis of interpersonal relationships
(6) A focus on the therapeutic relationship itself
(7) Exploration of dreams and other aspects of fantasy
Client-Centered Therapy
Client-Centered Therapy an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive
emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction
of their therapy. (Rogers)
o Rogers conflict due to incongruence between reality and self-concept.
o Help clients to realize that they do not have to worry constantly about pleasing
others and winning acceptance
Therapeutic Climate therapist must provide:
o Genuineness the therapist must be genuine with the client, communicating
honestly and spontaneously and not be phony or defensive
o Unconditioned positive regard therapist must show a non-judgmental
acceptance the client as a person where therapists can disapprove of particular
o Empathy the therapist must understand the world from client’s point of view
Therapeutic Process therapist provides relatively little guidance, but primarily provides
o Key Task: Clarification
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