PSY100Y5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Nervous Tissue, Efferent Nerve Fiber, Twin Study

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
UTM
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100Y5
Professor
Chapter 3 Biological Bases of Behaviour
Communication in the nervous system
Nervous tissue: the basic hardware
- Neurons: individual cells in nervous system that receive, integrate and transmit information
- Soma = cell body: contain cell nuclear and control chemical “equipment” common to most
cells
- Dendrites: parts of a neuron that are specialized receive information
- Axon: long thin fibre that transmits signals away from soma to other neurons/ parts of body
- Myelin sheath: insulation material that covers some axon, derives from glia cells
- Terminal buttons: small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitter
- Synapse: junction where one information is transmitted to another neuron
- Gila (Glue): cells found throughout the nervous system and provide various support for the
neurons
- Neurotransmitter: the chemical that transmit from one another neuron
The neural impulse: using energy to send signals
1. When neurons at rest, the concentration of negative charged ions is higher, the resting potential
of neurons is its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive
2. The action potential: cell membrane opens to let in more +ve ions cause an action potential
the brief shift in neuron electrical charge along the axon. Then the cell membrane close up, wait
for the cell body to charge, calling this waiting time the absolute refractory period he
minimum time after an action potential when another action potential cannot begin.
3. The all-of-non law: like can’t fire half gun
The synapse: where neurons meet
- Sending signal
the presynaptic neuron (the neuron that send signal send across the synaptic gap)
when through the gap and the post synaptic neuron receives the signals
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How msg travel across the gap? Presynaptic neuron in packed in the synaptic vesicle
down to the synapse, release to the gap, the other received end recognized and
respond to the information received
- Receiving signalthe postsynaptic potential
Reaction area: the postsynaptic potential (PSP) a voltage change at the reception
site on postsynaptic cell membrane
2 type of msg send from cell to cell: the inhibitory PSP and the excitatory PSP
Inhibitory PSP negative shift of voltage, the action potential
Excitatory PSP positive shift of voltage, the action potential
The reuptake neurotransmitter are sponge up from synapse cleft by presynaptic
membrane
- Integrate signal neural networking
Eliminating the old and less used neurotransmitter is more important than creating
new ones, it might influence behaviour
Neurotransmitter and behaviour
- The two types of neurotransmitter: the inhibitory PSP and the excitatory PSP & the receiving
site and releasing site of synapse
- Acetylcholine (ACh): the only transmitter between motor and voluntary muscles, influenced
by chemicals: agonist, chemicals binds to the receptors and simulate the action of a
neurotransmitter, cause postsynaptic potentials; antagonist, chemicals binds to the
receptors and block the activity of postsynaptic potentials, oppose action of
neurotransmitters
- Monoamines: the 3 neurotransmitter: Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin.
- Transmitter consist of amino acids: gamma-animobutyric (GAMA) and glycine are the
inhibitory postsynaptic potential; Glutamate: amino acid transmitter for learning and
memory
- Endorphins: internal produce chemical that resemble opiates in structure and the effect
Organization of the Nervous system
Peripheral nervous system (ns)
- All those nerves that lie outside brain and spinal cord
- Subdivided into somatic ns and autonomic ns
- Somatic ns: Nerves connected to voluntary skeletal muscle and to sensory receptor: 2 types
of nerves fibre
Afferent nerve fibres: axon from peripheral of body to the centre nervous system
Efferent nerve fibres: axon opposite of Afn
- Automatic ns: connected to heart, blood vessel, smooth muscle and gland.; subdivided into
two branches
Sympathetic division: mobilizes body for emergencies: The flight-or-fight respond
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Document Summary

Neurons: individual cells in nervous system that receive, integrate and transmit information. Soma = cell body: contain cell nuclear and control chemical equipment common to most cells. Dendrites: parts of a neuron that are specialized receive information. Axon: long thin fibre that transmits signals away from soma to other neurons/ parts of body. Myelin sheath: insulation material that covers some axon, derives from glia cells. Gila (glue): cells found throughout the nervous system and provide various support for the. Terminal buttons: small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitter. Synapse: junction where one information is transmitted to another neuron neurons. Neurotransmitter: the chemical that transmit from one another neuron. The presynaptic neuron (the neuron that send signal send across the synaptic gap) when through the gap and the post synaptic neuron receives the signals. Presynaptic neuron in packed in the synaptic vesicle down to the synapse, release to the gap, the other received end recognized and respond to the information received.

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