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Chapter 13

PSY100Y5 Chapter 13: Social Behaviour

9 pages54 viewsSpring 2018

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat
Chapter
13

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Samantha Balajadia
1
Chapter 13: Social Behaviour
Dax Urbszat
PSY 100
Introduction to Psychology
Introduction
Social psychology
o Study of individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviours influence by others
Will cover 7 broad topics
o Person perception
o Attribution processes
o Interpersonal attraction
o Attitudes
o Conformity
o Obedience
Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others
We also base it off of physical impressions
We update our impressions of people as we get to know them
Our final perception can often be dramatically influenced by just one piece of information
o Central traits
Person perception
o Process of forming impressions of others
o Can be inaccurate because of biases and fallacies that we have
What are the effects of physical Appearance?
Attractive people command the attention
That is because they are often portrayed in better light in media, although there is no correlation
between personality and a person's looks
Another reason would be our desire to bond with attractive people
Attractive people are also viewed as more competent which leads to better job opportunities and
higher income
o However it downplays that attractive women got their job because of their skills not their
looks
Nonverbal expressiveness are also telltale signs of a person's personality
o May be helpful in determining if a stranger has ill intentions
What are Cognitive Schemas?
Even though each individual is unique, we still categorize them into different categories based on
our schemas - cognitive structures that guide information processing
Social schemas
o Organized cluster of ideas about categories of social events and people
o Help to efficiently categorize and process information and how to approach interactions
Self schema
o Integrated set of memories, beliefs and generalizations about one's behaviour in a given
domain
o Same way to operate as any other schema
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Samantha Balajadia
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o How they process and remember information in their domain
o Aschematic
No self- schema in that particular domain
What are Stereotypes?
Some schemas are based on people's personal experiences, some are through your cultural
background
Stereotypes
o People have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group
o Traditional gender stereotypes
Women and men gender differences
o Age stereotype
Elder people are slow and forgetful
o Ethnic stereotype
Asians are smart
o Occupational stereotype
Lawyers are manipulative
Automatic cognitive process that helps save time and energy
o But it comes at the cost of inaccuracy
Also affected by self fulfilling prophecy
o Black
Non immediate style
o White
Immediate style
o Can bring about the characteristics that you thought about them
Ex
Sitting beside a professor on the bus
Schema: professors read books
You ask about the books
Prof provides books he has read
But you have missed that you like the same music
Can also affect oneself
o Ex
Elderly prime condition
Results in the students walking slowly with elderly characteristics than the
student who did the neutral prime condition
Subjectivity and Bias in Person Perception?
Illusory correlation
o When people estimate that they encountered more confirmations of an association
between social traits than they have actually seen
Individuals selectively recall facts that fit with their schemas and not the ones that don't
What is the evolutionary perspective on bias in a person's perception?
It is adaptive as physical attractiveness is an indication of reproductive health and wealth
The human tendency to categorize is programmed to determine who is friend or a foe
o Ingroup
Group that one belongs to or identifies with
o Outgroup
Group that one does not belong to or identify with
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Much of the bias in a person perception is due too cognitive mechanisms
Attribution Processes: Explaining Behaviour
Attributions
o Inferences people draw about the causes of events, and behaviours
o We make it as a way to understand the experiences
Internal versus external attributions
Fritz Heider said we locate the cause in two different ways
o Internal attributions
Personal factors
o External attributions
Environmental and situational factors
How you view an event can be affected on whether you think it is from internal or external
attributions
What are the attributions for success and failure
Weiner introduced the stability
o Internal stable
Talent
o Internal unstable
Effort
o External stable
Task difficulty
o External unstable
Opportunity or luck
Bias in attribution
Attributions are only inferences and may not be the correct answer
THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR AND ACTOR-OBSERVER BIAS
o Fundamental attribution error
Observer bias
In favour of internal attribution in explaining other's behaviours
Only thinking about the internal and disregarding the external or the
situational pressures
May be due to the latter requiring more thought and effort and the
former is automatic
Events caused by internal attributions may also be common because of it being
automatic and less effort
o Actor observer bias
Actor favours external attributions for their behaviour and the observer favours it on
internal attributions
Ex
An angry customer is seen as rude, unreasonable and impatient by the
observer
The customer which is the actor may blame it on the situation of waiting
in line for so long and the food being wrong
DEFENSIVE ATTRIBUTION
o Blaming victims for their misfortune so that you feel less likely that it will happen to you
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