PSY100Y5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Artificial Neural Network, Axon Terminal, Myelin

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Two major categories for cells in nervous system: neurons and glia. Glia: cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons: help maintain the chemical environment of the neurons. Neurons: individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate and transmit information: permit communication (mostly within other neurons) only sensory organs receive signals from outside the nervous system. Soma, or cell body: contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells. Dendrites: the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information. Axon: a long, thin fibre that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Myelin sheath: the insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons. Speeds up transmission of information: m. s due to deterioration of myelin sheath. Terminal buttons: small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters. Synapse: where information is transmitted from one neuron to another.

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