PSY100Y5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Psychoanalytic Theory, Contiguity, Margaret Floy Washburn

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Published on 12 Oct 2015
School
UTM
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100Y5
Professor
The Evolution of Psychology
Nativism:
- Inborn knowledge
Empiricism
- When knowledge is gained through experience
Aristotle’s theory of memory
- Memories are the result of three principles of association
oSimilarity
oContrast
oContiguity
Psychology was referred to as “classic philosophy”
Wilhelm Wundt (Psychology’s founder 1832-1920)
- Made psychology an independent study rather than a stepchild to physiology and
philosophy
- Argued that psychology should be the study of consciousness
Structuralism vs. Functionalism (major schools of thought)
Structuralism (Edward Tichener)
- Focusses on systematic observations
- More laboratory based work
- Break up consciousness into its individual components ex. sensations, feelings and
images and study how these components relate to one another to understand the bigger
picture of “consciousness”
-Method of study: Introspection
othe careful systematic self observation of ones own conscious experience
Functionalism (William James)
- Behaviourism and applied psychology
- based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of
consciousness rather than its structure
- functionalists interested in how people adapt their behaviours to the demands of the real
world around them
- ex. mental testing, patterns of development in children, effectiveness of educational
practices and behavioural differences between sexes
- Henry James thinking illustrates how psychology like any field is deeply imbedded in a
network of cultural and intellectual influences
- James noted that consciousness is an important characteristic of our species so he said
that psychology should investigate the functions rather than the structure of
consciousness
- Also said that structuralists approach missed the real nature of conscious experience
- Consciousness consists of continuous flow of thoughts
Natural Selection (Charles Darwin 1859,1871)
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