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Chapter 1

chapter one

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100Y5
Professor
Dax Urbszat

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Chapter One The Evolution of Psychology
The Development of Psychology
-psychology developed from philosophical speculations about the mind into modern
sciences, later, it became known as the study of the mind
* William Wundt (1832-1920)
- German Psychologist
- made psychology an independent discipline rather than philosophy or psychology
- In 1879 Wundt succeeded in establishing the first formal laboratory for research in
psychology at the University of Leipzig
- established the first journal devoted to publishing research on psychology
- Psychology became the scientific study of consciousness and conscious experience
* G. Stanely Hall (1846-1924)
- studied briefly with Wundt
- launched the first American psychology journal and was the president of the American
Psychological Association (APA)
The Battle of the Schools (Structuralism vs. Functionalism)
*Edward Titchener Structuralism
Structuralism is based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness
into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related
Structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of
conscious experience such as: sensations, feelings and images
Depended on the method of introspection: the careful systematic self-observation of
ones own conscious experience ( this required training to make the subject the
person being studied- more objective and more aware)
Limitations associated with the use of introspection were a factor that contributed to
the demise of structuralism
*William James (1842-1910) Functionalism
www.notesolution.com
Functionalism is based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or
purpose of consciousness rather than its structure
James thinking illustrates how psychology, like any field, is deeply embeeded in a
network of cultural and intellectual influences
James had been impressed with Charles Darwin principle of natural selection 
Heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more
likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and
thus come to be selected over time
Said that the structuralists approach missed the real nature of conscious experience
*John B. Watson Behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that
scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour
We should study things that can be observed objectively
For Watson, mental events were not important because they were seen as private
events and no one can see or touch another persons thoughts
Behaviour is determined by nature vs. nurture
A stimulus can detect any able input from environment (light and sound waves)
Emphasizing the importance of the environment over heredity, the behaviourists
began to explore stimulus-response relationships often using laboratory animals as
subjects

www.notesolution.com
*Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) bringing the unconscious into the picture
His approach to psychology came from his attempt to treat mental disorders (ie;
irrational fears)
He also gathered material by looking inward and examining his own anxieties,
conflicts and desires
According to Freud the unconscious contained memories, desires and thoughts that
are well below the surface of the conscious awareness but that nonetheless have a
great influence on behaviour
Psychological disturbances are largely caused by personal conflicts existing at the
unconscious level
Psychoanalytical Theory attempts to explain personality, motivation and mental
disorders focusing on the unconscious determinants of behaviour
Made the discovery that people are not the masters of their minds and proposed the
idea that much of behaviour is influenced by how people cope with their sexual urges
However, some scientists found that the psychoanalytical theory was an unscientific
speculation that would eventually fade away
Nevertheless, many saw merit in the scientific methods to the topics of: personality,
motivation and abnormal behaviour
*Harvard B.F Skinner (1904-1990) Free Will (Operant Conditioning)
Emerging as a central figure in behaviourism
He did not deny the existence of internal mental events but he redefined them as
private events and did not think that they should be given special status when
explaining behaviour
Emphasized how environmental factors could mould behaviour , thus, he argued
that psychology could predict and understand behaviour adequately without
resorting to physiological explanations
He found that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and
tend not to repeat responses that lead to negative or neutral outcomes
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter One The Evolution of Psychology The Development of Psychology -psychology developed from philosophical speculations about the mind into modern sciences, later, it became known as the study of the mind * William Wundt (1832-1920) - German Psychologist - made psychology an independent discipline rather than philosophy or psychology - In 1879 Wundt succeeded in establishing the first formal laboratory for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig - established the first journal devoted to publishing research on psychology - Psychology became the scientific study of consciousness and conscious experie * G. Stanely Hall (1846-1924) - studied briefly with Wundt - launched the first American psychology journal and was the president of the American Psychological Association (APA) The Battle of the Schools (Structuralism vs. Functionalism) *Edward Titchener Structuralism Structuralism is based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related Structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience such as: sensations, feelings and images Depended on the method of introspection: the careful systematic self-observation of ones own conscious experience ( this required training to make the subject the person being studied- more objective and more aware) Limitations associated with the use of introspection were a factor that contributed to the demise of structuralism *William James (1842-1910) Functionalism www.notesolution.com
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