•James was influenced by Charles Darwin of Natural Selection.
•Natural Selection: Heritable characters that provide a survival of reproductive
advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to
subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time.
•James applied this theory to humans and realized the conscious is an important
characteristics in humans, thus said functions should be investigated rather than
structure of the conscious.
•He said consciousness consists of “continous flow of thoughts”.
•This flow is called Stream of Consciousness.
Watson and Behaviourism
•John B. Watson (1878-1958) founded behaviourism.
•Behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientfic
psychology should study only observable behaviour.
•Watson proposed for the study of conscious to be dropped all together, and to
focus on heaviours that could be observed.
•This is because he thought that observing the conscious wasn’t scientific since
nothing can only be observed but just speculated and no one can touch or see
anothers thoughts. While behaviourism allowed observations and verifiability of
theories with knowledge and facts.
• Behaviour refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism.
•Watson just didn’t end here. He then answered one of Psychologys oldest
questions, that whether behaviour is dermed mainly by genetic inheritance
(nature) or by enviornment and expirence (nurture). He famously said: “Give me
a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them
up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any
type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes,
even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies,
abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I
admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it
for many thousands of years.”