Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 10: MOTIVATION & EMOTION
I. The Motivation of Hunger and Eating
1. Motives are the needs, wants, interests and desires that propel people in
2. Motivation involves goal-directed behavior.
3. There are 2 types of motivation – biological motives that originate in
biological needs (i.e. hunger), and social motives, that originate in social
experiences (i.e. achievement).
4. People share the same biological needs, but their social needs (and their
strengths) may vary.
B. Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
1. Brain Regulation – experience of anger is controlled in the brain, specifically
2 areas in the hypothalamus.
a.Hypothalamus – tiny structure involved in the regulation of a variety of
biological needs related to survival.
b. Lateral hypothalamus (LH) & the ventromedical nucleus of the
hypothalamus (VMH) regulate hunger, but not the key elements.
c.3rd area of hypothalamus, known as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)
may play role in hunger regulation.
d. Contemporary theories of hunger focus more on neural circuits rather
than anatomical centers of the brain.
2. Glucose and Digestive Regulation
a.Glucose – a simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
i.Mayer – proposed that hunger is regulated by the rise and fall of
blood glucose levels.
ii.Glucostic Theory – proposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level
are monitored by glucostats – neurons sensitive to glucose in the
b. Digestive system – nerves send signals that inhibit further eating by
monitoring stretching of stomach walls or carry messages that depend on
how rich in nutrients the contents of the stomach are.
3. Hormonal Regulation – appear to contribute to regulation of hunger.
a.Insulin – hormone secreted by the pancreas which much be present for
cells to extract glucose from the blood.
b. Leptin - produced by fat cells throughout the body and released into the
bloodstream. High levels of fat produce high levels of leptin, and
circulates through the bloodstream, providing the hypothalamus with
info about the body’s fat stores.
C. Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger
1. Hunger is a biological need, but eating may in some instances be social, and
influenced by 3 factors – learned prefs/habits, food related cues, and stress.
2. Learned Prefs and Habits – People from different cultures display very
different patterns of food consumption.
a.Prefs for high fat foods.