PSYChapter 14 Notes

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Published on 31 Jul 2012
School
UTM
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100Y5
Professor
Feb/19/2004, Thursday CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 14: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
I. Abnormal Behavior: Myths, Realities, and Controversies
A. The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior
1. Medical Model – proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a
disease.
2. Szasz – Abnormal Behavior involves a deviation from social norms rather than
an illness. i.e. “problems of living” and not “medical problems”.
3. Diagnosis – distinguishing one illness from another
4. Etiology – apparent causation and developmental history of an illness.
5. Prognosis – forecast of probable course of an illness.
B. Criteria of Abnormal Behavior
1. Deviance – people are said to have a disorder if their behavior deviates from
what society considers acceptable (norms).
2. Maladaptive Behavior – people may be judged to have a disorder of their
everyday adaptive behavior is impaired i.e. substance abuse disorders.
3. Personal Distress – i.e. Depression/anxiety
4. Evolutionary Dysfunctions – a dysfunction occurs when an evolved
psychological mechanism does not perform its naturally selected function
adequately or effectively.
C. Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders
1. Psych Disorders are incurable
2. People with Psych disorders are often violent and dangerous.
3. People with psych. disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from
normal people.
D. Psycho-Diagnosis: The Classification of Disorders
1. DSM scale used to diagnose disorders.
2. Axis I (Clinical Syndromes) and Axis II (Personality Disorders and Mental
Retardation) used to make diagnosis of condition.
3. Axis III (General Medical Conditions), Axis IV (Psychosocial & Environmental
Problems) & Axis V (GAF Scale) – used to record supplemental info.
a. Axis V – current level of adaptive functioning.
E. Prevalence of Psych Disorders
1. Epidemiology – study of distribution of mental/physical disorders in a
population.
2. Prevalence – the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a
specific time period.
a. Lifetime prevalence – the percentage of people who endure a specific
disorder at any time in their lives.
3. 1/3 of population suffers from a psych disorder. Most commonly: anxiety,
substance use, and mood disorders.
II. Anxiety Disorders
A. Introduction
1. Anxiety Disorder – class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive
apprehension and anxiety. 4 types – generalized anxiety disorder, phobic,
obsessive compulsive, and panic.
2. Disorders may not be mutually exclusive, many who have one develop another
later.
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Feb/19/2004, Thursday CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 14: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
B. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
1. GAD – marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific
threat. i.e. “free floating anxiety”.
2. Worry about minor matters related to family, finances, work, personal illness.
3. Physical symptoms: trembling, muscle tension, diarrhea, dizziness, heart
palpations.
C. Phobic Disorder
1. Phobic. Disorder – marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or
situation that presents no realistic danger.
a. Phobias may be common, but people with Phobic Disorders have fears
which seriously interfere with everyday behavior.
2. Common Phobias incl. acrophobia (heights), claustrophobia, brontophobia
(storms), hydrophobia, and various insect/animal phobias.
3. People usually realize fears are irrational but are unable to remain calm when
confronted by a phobic object (or even imaging it).
D. Panic Disorder and Agorophobia
1. Panic Disorder – characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety
that usually occurs suddenly and unexpectedly. Accompanied by physical
symptoms.
a. Victim becomes apprehensive, refusing to leave house.
2. Agorophobia – fear of going out to public places – complication of Panic
disorder.
a. Typically affects females.
E. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
1. OCD – marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts
(obsessing), and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
2. Obsessions often center on inflicting harm on others, personal failure, suicide,
sex acts.
3. Victims may feel as though they’ve lost control of their mind.
4. Typically arises in early adulthood.
F. Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
1. Biological Factors
a. Concordance Rate – indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs
of relations that exhibit the same disorders.
b. Twin studies suggest low genetic disposition to anxiety disorders.
c. Anxiety Sensitivity may make people vulnerable to anxiety disorders. i.e.
Some people are highly sensitive to internal physiological symptoms of
anxiety and prone to overreact with fear when they experience symptoms.
d. Link between anxiety disorders and neurochemical activity in the brain.
2. Conditioning and Learning
a. Many anxiety response may be acquired through classical conditioning
and maintained through operant conditioning.
i. Originally neutral stimulus (snow) may be paired with frightening
event (avalanche) so it becomes a conditioned stimulus eliciting
anxiety. (Example of Classical Conditioning)
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Document Summary

Chapter 14: psychological disorders: abnormal behavior: myths, realities, and controversies, the medical model applied to abnormal behavior. Retardation) used to make diagnosis of condition: axis iii (general medical conditions), axis iv (psychosocial & environmental. Anxiety disorders: introduction, anxiety disorder class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety. 4 types generalized anxiety disorder, phobic, obsessive compulsive, and panic: disorders may not be mutually exclusive, many who have one develop another later. Chapter 14: psychological disorders: generalized anxiety disorder. Correlated with anxiety disorders and poorer prognosis of recovery: stress anxiety disorders are stress related. May be recurring: dysthmic disorder consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify the diagnosis of a major depressive episode, more prevalent in women then men, bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder) Roots of depression lie in how people explain setbacks they experience. i. People who exhibit a pessimistic explanatory style are vulnerable to depression.

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