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Chapter 1

PSYChapter 1.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY202H5
Professor
Dax Urbszat

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Oct/4/2003 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 1: THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY
I. From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed
A. A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt & Hall
1. “psyche” – soul “logos” – study of (Greek roots)
2. Defined in 16th Century, yet not popular till early 18th century.
3. Born out of philosophy and physiology – movement led by Wilhelm Wundt
a. 1879 – 1st Formal Lab for Psych research, Univ of Leipzig
b. 1881 – Wundt starts 1st psych journal
c. Wundt known as father of psych
d. According to Wundt, psych should be a science. Focus on
consciousness. Psych became the scientific study of conscious
experience.
4. Hall, G Stanley – studied briefly with Wundt, contributor to American Psych.
a. Established first American research lab – John Hopkins (1883)
b. Launched American’s 1st Journal (1887)
c. 1892 – Became 1st president of APA.
B. The Battle of the Schools Begins – Structuralism vs. Functionalism.
1. Structuralism – led by English Edward Tichener (studied in the States though)
a. Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze
consciousness into it’s basic elements and investigate how these
elements relate.
i. Wanted to identify and examine fundamentals of consciousness, like
sensations, feelings, and images.
b. Most work centered around sensation and perception in vision, hearing
and touch.
c. Relied on “introspection” – careful, systematic, self observation of one’s
own conscious experience.
i. Required training to make subject m ore aware and objective
ii. One trained, exposed to auditory tones, optical illusions, and visual
stimuli under carefully controlled and systematically varied conditions.
Then asked to analyze what they experienced.
2. Functionalism – based on the belief that psychology should investigate the
function/purpose of consciousness, not the structure. Led by American William
James.
a. Author of “Principles of Psych” (1890) – most influential work
b. Believed psych is embedded in network of culture and intellectual
influences.
c. Influenced by Darwin, natural selection – heritable characteristics that
provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than
alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations, and
thus become selected over time (i.e. typical characteristics of a species
must serve a purpose.)
d. Argued that consciousness was “flow” of thoughts and structuralists
examined only static points.
e. Less focused on lab, more on “practical” i.e. mental testing,
development in children, effectiveness of education practices,
differences between the sexes.
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Description
Oct42003 CHANAPSNotes From ReadingCHAPTER 1 THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGYIFrom Speculation to Science How Psychology DevelopedAA New Science is Born The Contributions of WundtHall1psychesoul logosstudy ofGreek roots2Defined in 16th Century yet not popular till early 18th century3Born out of philosophy and physiologymovement led by Wilhelm Wundta18791st Formal Lab for Psych research Univ of Leipzigb1881Wundt starts 1st psych journalcWundt known as father of psychdAccording to Wundt psych should be a science Focus on consciousness Psych became the scientific study of conscious experience4Hall G Stanleystudied briefly with Wundt contributor to American Psych aEstablished first American research labJohn Hopkins 1883 bLaunched Americans 1st Journal 1887 c1892Became 1st president of APABThe Battle of the Schools BeginsStructuralism vs Functionalism1Structuralismled by English Edward Tichener studied in the States thoughaBased on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements relate iWanted to identify and examine fundamentals of consciousness like sensations feelings and imagesbMost work centered around sensation and perception in vision hearing and touchcRelied on introspectioncareful systematic self observation of ones own conscious experience iRequired training to make subject m ore aware and objectiveiiOne trained exposed to auditory tones optical illusions and visual stimuli under carefully controlled and systematically varied conditions Then asked to analyze what they experienced 2Functionalismbased on the belief that psychology should investigate the functionpurpose of consciousness not the structure Led by American William James aAuthor of Principles of Psych 1890most influential workbBelieved psych is embedded in network of culture and intellectual influences cInfluenced by Darwin natural selectionheritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus become selected over time ie typical characteristics of a species must serve a purposedArgued that consciousness was flow of thoughts and structuralists examined only static points eLess focused on lab more on practical ie mental testing development in children effectiveness of education practices differences between the sexes14
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