The newborn: neonates: a newborn baby, skin is red, wrinkled and blotchy from floating for nine months in the amniotic fluid, heads oversized (childhood to adulthood, quarter to eighth, legs appear weak- even useless. This activity is absent in the remaining, non-rem sleep: autostimulation theory: the theory that during rem sleep the infant"s brain stimulates itself and that this, in turn, stimulates early development of the central nervous system. Crying: earliest means of communicating needs to caregivers, three different patterns of crying, basic, linked to hunger, among other factors. Start arrhythmically and at low intensity, gradually becomes louder and more rhythmic; sequence is cry-rest-inhale-rest: angry, same as basic pattern except that segments of crying, resting, and inhaling vary in length, and crying segments are longer. Infant"s abilities to soothe themselves: sucking- hand, thumb - comfort reduce distress, when sucks, overall body movements are lessened.