PSY240H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Framingham Heart Study, Natural Killer Cell, Type A And Type B Personality Theory

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29 Nov 2011
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- box 10.1 (p.355)
- Cytokine categories
opro-inflammatory cytokines
ex. interleukin 1, 6/tumour necrosis factor
augment immune response
oanti-inflammatory cytokines
ex. IL-4, 10, 13
dampen response of immune system
- brain capable of influencing immune process
- also, IL-1 and other cytokines can stimulate HPA axis
- probs w/ immune system can also lead to some behavioural changes/ even
psychiatric probs
oex. death of a spouse may cause it
ocan also be caused by short-term threats to our sense of well-being
oexp – found that neg self evaluations, diminished natural killer cell
oanimal study – rats exposed to stressful tail shocks , later had higher level
of cortisol when exposed to another stressful event (placed on a platform)
oresearch shows that the brain and immune system influence each other
omost enduring stressor (unemployment) associated w/ most global
ostress found to slow healing of wounds
omajor depression linked to enhanced production of pro-inflammatory
cytokines including IL-6
- sense of hopelessness can accelerate progression of arthrosclerosis leading to
heart attacks and strokes
-positive psychology
oschool of psychology that focuses on human traits and resources than
might have direct implications for our physical and mental well-being
- angry physician who had a heart attack
- didn’t fix his lifestyle
obp increases as we age
oin younger adults, more men than women suffer from high bp
oafter about age 50, prevalence of hypertension is higher in women than
-Coronary Heart Disease
- Type B personality – more relaxed, laid-back and less time-pressured ppl
- Framingham Heart Study
oconfirmed findings of Western Collaborative Group Study and extended
them to women as well
- hostility – most closely correlated w/ coronary artery deterioration
-Box 10.2
- cardiovascular disease in a 33 year old athlete (Darry Kile)
- prevention of cardiovascular disease begins w/
ohealth eductation
orecognize symptoms of heart attack
- warning signs that are often/but not always present
opain that spreads along shoulders, arm, neck/jaw
osudden sweating
oheavy P/pain in centre of chest
onausea, vomiting, and shortness of breath
-Chronic and acute stress
- research – reported deaths from CHD rise in the days and weeks following a
severe earthquake
- everyday forms of stress can also elevate risk for CHD and death
oex. highly demanding job and little control over decision making
-General Causal Factors in Physical Illness and Disease
- Genetic Factors
- ex. genetic polymorphism of serotonin-transporter gene been linked to increased
depression but only when carriers of gene are under stress
- study – rats repeatedly exposed to 3 hr separations from mothers were hyperactive
when placed in a novel env. and had more extreme responses to stress compared
to rats that were separated 15min at a time
- study showed that maternal care of rats affects their anxiety
- children raised in high-conflict families show greater cardiovascular reactivity
when they hear audiotapes from families where there is less conflict
- research – found that variations in cortisol release in response to stressful situation
were affected by genetic and environmental factors for children from low-stress,
whereas genetic factors had smaller influence in children from high-stress
-Box 10.5
- visits from volunteers for hospital patients led them to live 3 months longer than
those who didn’t have visits
-CASE STUDY – Annette
ohad stomach pains/felt sick
owas allowed to stay home when she did
owas worried that she would get sick
-Box 10.6
- study – found that students who were exposed to colds and developed it, were
those who had experienced higher levels of neg. life events and also had highly
diverse social networks
o generally beneficial for immune system to have large group of friends,
not good when under stress b/c you come into contact w/ more ppl
-Psychological Interventions
- Traditional psychotherapy
- study – emotional disclosure (wrote about it) in ppl w/ rheumatoid arthritis had
significantly less physical dysfunction than those assigned to a control condition
- Behaviour therapy
- study - Trandscendental Meditation helped ppl reduce bp
-Sociocultural Approaches
- study – shown that 41% of smokers have some form of mental disorder
-Box 10.7
-chronic fatigue syndrome
olasts 6 months or more
ofor many, there is diminished appetite, low-grade fever, balance probs,
nausea and night sweats
- evidence that this is not a form of atypical depression
- typical patient w/ CFS is white, middle class female in 30s
- however CFS found in both children and adults and in ppl of all races, ethnicities,
and social classes
- often CFS beings w/ a sudden flu-like illness