PSY240H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Framingham Heart Study, Natural Killer Cell, Type A And Type B Personality Theory

24 views3 pages
29 Nov 2011
School
Department
Course
Professor
Page:
of 3
CHAPTER 10
- box 10.1 (p.355)
- Cytokine categories
opro-inflammatory cytokines
ex. interleukin 1, 6/tumour necrosis factor
augment immune response
oanti-inflammatory cytokines
ex. IL-4, 10, 13
dampen response of immune system
- brain capable of influencing immune process
- also, IL-1 and other cytokines can stimulate HPA axis
- probs w/ immune system can also lead to some behavioural changes/ even
psychiatric probs
-immunosuppression
oex. death of a spouse may cause it
ocan also be caused by short-term threats to our sense of well-being
oexp – found that neg self evaluations, diminished natural killer cell
cytotoxicity
oanimal study – rats exposed to stressful tail shocks , later had higher level
of cortisol when exposed to another stressful event (placed on a platform)
-psychoneuroimmunology
oresearch shows that the brain and immune system influence each other
omost enduring stressor (unemployment) associated w/ most global
immunosuppression
ostress found to slow healing of wounds
omajor depression linked to enhanced production of pro-inflammatory
cytokines including IL-6
- sense of hopelessness can accelerate progression of arthrosclerosis leading to
heart attacks and strokes
-positive psychology
oschool of psychology that focuses on human traits and resources than
might have direct implications for our physical and mental well-being
-CASE STUDY – Dr. M
- angry physician who had a heart attack
- didn’t fix his lifestyle
-Hypertension
obp increases as we age
oin younger adults, more men than women suffer from high bp
oafter about age 50, prevalence of hypertension is higher in women than
men
-Coronary Heart Disease
- Type B personality – more relaxed, laid-back and less time-pressured ppl
- Framingham Heart Study
oconfirmed findings of Western Collaborative Group Study and extended
them to women as well
- hostility – most closely correlated w/ coronary artery deterioration
-Box 10.2
- cardiovascular disease in a 33 year old athlete (Darry Kile)
- prevention of cardiovascular disease begins w/
ohealth eductation
orecognize symptoms of heart attack
- warning signs that are often/but not always present
opain that spreads along shoulders, arm, neck/jaw
osudden sweating
oheavy P/pain in centre of chest
onausea, vomiting, and shortness of breath
-Chronic and acute stress
- research – reported deaths from CHD rise in the days and weeks following a
severe earthquake
- everyday forms of stress can also elevate risk for CHD and death
oex. highly demanding job and little control over decision making
-General Causal Factors in Physical Illness and Disease
- Genetic Factors
- ex. genetic polymorphism of serotonin-transporter gene been linked to increased
depression but only when carriers of gene are under stress
- study – rats repeatedly exposed to 3 hr separations from mothers were hyperactive
when placed in a novel env. and had more extreme responses to stress compared
to rats that were separated 15min at a time
- study showed that maternal care of rats affects their anxiety
- children raised in high-conflict families show greater cardiovascular reactivity
when they hear audiotapes from families where there is less conflict
- research – found that variations in cortisol release in response to stressful situation
were affected by genetic and environmental factors for children from low-stress,
whereas genetic factors had smaller influence in children from high-stress
families
-Box 10.5
- visits from volunteers for hospital patients led them to live 3 months longer than
those who didn’t have visits
-CASE STUDY – Annette
ohad stomach pains/felt sick
owas allowed to stay home when she did
owas worried that she would get sick
-Box 10.6
- study – found that students who were exposed to colds and developed it, were
those who had experienced higher levels of neg. life events and also had highly
diverse social networks
o generally beneficial for immune system to have large group of friends,
not good when under stress b/c you come into contact w/ more ppl
-Psychological Interventions
- Traditional psychotherapy
- study – emotional disclosure (wrote about it) in ppl w/ rheumatoid arthritis had
significantly less physical dysfunction than those assigned to a control condition
- Behaviour therapy
- study - Trandscendental Meditation helped ppl reduce bp
-Sociocultural Approaches
- study – shown that 41% of smokers have some form of mental disorder
-Box 10.7
-chronic fatigue syndrome
olasts 6 months or more
ofor many, there is diminished appetite, low-grade fever, balance probs,
nausea and night sweats
- evidence that this is not a form of atypical depression
- typical patient w/ CFS is white, middle class female in 30s
- however CFS found in both children and adults and in ppl of all races, ethnicities,
and social classes
- often CFS beings w/ a sudden flu-like illness