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Chapter 1

PSY240H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Dorothea Dix, Psychopathology, Phenothiazine

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Tina Malti

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Clarence Hincks established an outpatient psychiatric clinic focusing on humanizing mental health problems
oWorked w/Beer in 1913 (ex-inpatient who wrote about horrible hospital conditions)
oEstablished Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene
Abnormal Psychology: study of ppl suffering from mental, emotional, & physical pain as result of psychopathology
(psychological/mental disorder)
7% of ppl aged 20+ had been diagnosed w/mental illness
Mental illnesses = account for $51bil of economic burden each year
Defining Abnormality:
Always about context
Abnormal if violate gender roles
1. Cultural Relativism: no universal standards
a. Opponents say societies have labelled inds to justify controlling or silencing
b. If violate male gender role = @risk for being labelled abnormal
2. Unusualness: how rare bhv is; if typical not abnormal
a. Issues is choosing cut-off; subjective; Ex; are bhvs that only occur in 10% = abnormal? 1%?
b. Eccentrics: inds w/hobbies, activities, that bring great joy to them & not harm others (1 in 10,000 truly; function
well & generally very happy)
3. Discomfort: if ind suffers discomfort + wants to be rid of bhv
a. Issue ppl are not always aware of the problems their bhv creates for themselves/other Ex: antisocial bhv
4. Mental Illness: bhvs that result from mental illness;
a. Mental illness if can be tested in ex: a test
5. Maladaptive: cause ppl to suffer distress & prevent from functioning in daily life
a. 3 Ds Dysfunction, Distress, Deviance
b. Issues how much emotional pain/harm must person be suffering; Who decides what is dysfunctional
c. Culture & gender can still affect this criteria b. influence how likely maladaptive bhv will be shown, influence what
ways ppl express distress/lose touch w/reality, willingness to admit to maladaptive bhv, & influences what treatment
are acceptable.
Wakefield’s Harmful Dysfunction: failure of internal mechanism to perform their natural functions
oOnly disorder when dysfunction causes harm to person as determined by standards of person’s culture
Categorical vs. Dimensional Ratings of Mental Illness:
oDSM-IV = categorical perspective
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