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Chapter 8

PSY310H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Parenting Styles, Gender Role, Androgyny


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY310H5
Professor
Virginia K Walker
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8 Identity
Identity as an Adolescent Issue
Changes in identity that take place during adolescence involve the first substantial
reorganization and restructuring of the individuals sense of self.
Puberty and Identity Development
Puberty often changes outward experience and this has also helps with forming identity
and affects the identity development
Cognitive Change and Identity Development
Developing cognitive processes also impact identity development. Specifically there are
two ways
oThey become much more able to imagine their possible selves- the various
identities an adolescent might imagine for himself/herself
oIncrease in future orientation- The extent to which an individual is able and
inclined to think about the potential consequences of decisions and choices.
Therefore changes in thinking allow for adolescent identity development
Social roles and identity development
Changes in social role puts adolescents in a position where they need to make major
decisions about their life and start to question what they want out of life and which role in
society will they fill.
Three different approaches are taken to see how identity changes over time
oSelf-conceptions- ideas that individuals have about themselves with regards to
various traits and attributes
oSelf-esteem- how positive or negative their self image is
oSense of identity- sense of who one is, where they come from and where they
are going
Changes in self-conceptions
Self-conceptions change and become more differentiated and better organized.
oDifferentiation of the self concept happens when as adolescent is able to link
their traits to specific situations and when they take into who doing the describing
for example- My friends think I am really shy but when I am with people I know
really well I talk a lot.
oSelf conceptions also become more organized related to specific situations etc.
Adolescents are able to distinguish between their actual self (who they are), ideal
self (who they want to be) and feared self (who dread becoming). A healthy self

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concept is having an ideal self to balance the feared self. In delinquent
adolescents, the ideal self is missing.
oBut they are not always consistent, false self behaviour- behaviour that
intentionally presents a false impression to others. Putting on a false self
behaviour can be linked with devaluing your original self but not always
oTo study the dimensions of personality five-factor model is used
This model focuses on five main personality dimensions “big five”.
Extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and
openness to experience.
oTemperament and personality become more stable as we grow older. Girls
mature faster, but by the end of adolescence the boys have caught up.
Changes in self esteem
Self esteem remains highly stable long term and does not change significantly during
adolescence.
Self esteem solidifies over adolescence. Day to day fluctuations tend to be smaller early
and late adolescence.
But changes in self perceptions are greater during early adolescence than middle or late
adolescence.
There are three aspects to an adolescence self esteem
oSelf-esteem- how positive or negative they feel about themselves
oSelf consciousness- how much they worry about their self image
oSelf- image stability- how much they feel that their self image changes from day
to day
Most marked differences in self-image happen during transition into adolescence and
early adolescence because
oEgocentrism makes them aware of others reactions
oInteractions may leave them uncomfortable not being able to decide how they
are viewed by others
oIncreased importance of peers.
The extent to which an individuals self-esteem is volatile is also stable. Meaning that if
someones self esteem fluctuates a lot during young adolescence then they are more
likely to experience the same thing later on. Highly volatile = anxiety, tension etc
But maybe looking at stability is inaccurate because high self esteem in academins but
low in social standing, so the issue is more complicated. Averages also hide differences
between people.
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Components of self-esteem
Self-esteem can be divided in various categories so sweeping statements about it are
unwise.
Moreover, these different categories contribute differently to overall self-esteem. Top
predictor is physical self-esteem. So how they look.
But when asked, adolescents rate physical self-esteem as the least important factor
showing they are often unaware of crucial categories of self-esteem
Group differences- girls have lower physical self-esteem. And towards the beginning this
esteem is lower towards the beginning and levels out later in adolescence between boys
and girls
Ethnic differences- Black girls don’t show the same self-esteem problems as
white/Hispanic girls. Asians show the lowest self esteem. Reasons why black girls have
higher self-esteem
oSupport provided from the Black community
oFocusing on areas of strength to protect self-esteem
oHave a strong sense of ethnic identity
Ethnic differences- even the pattern of change of self-esteem differs between groups.
Majority kids always have higher self-esteem than minority kids.
Antecedent and consequences of high self-esteem
Self-esteem is enhanced by approval of others
Academic success leads to improvements in how adolescents feel about themselves not
the other way around. High self-esteem related to better mental health
Low self-esteem and depression, the direction of this relationship is dependent on the
individual. Low self-esteem behavioural problems.
Adolescent Identity Crisis
Eriksons theoretical framework
He saw a person moving through 8 psychological crises over the course of the life span.
He believed that establishment of identity versus identity diffusion is the chief
psychological crisis of adolescence
oIdentity versus identity diffusion- normative crisis characteristic of the fifth stage
of psychosocial development, predominant during adolescence
oIdentity is social as much as a mental process, and everyone that the adolescent
interacts with helps shape their identity
The social context of identity development
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