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PSY311H5 Chapter Notes -Prefrontal Cortex, Deeper Understanding, Emotional Expression


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY311H5
Professor
Stuart Kamenetsky

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Chapter 14
Overarching Themes: Integrating Social Development
Chapter Outline
OVERARCHING THEMES: INTEGRATING SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
WHAT WE KNOW: SOME TAKE-HOME PRINCIPLES
VIEWS OF THE SOCIAL CHILD
The Child Is Socially Competent from an Early Age
The Child’s Social Behavior Is Organized
The Child’s Social Behavior Becomes Increasingly Sophisticated
The Child Is Embedded in Levels of Social Complexity
Children’s Interactions with Other People Are Reciprocal and Transactional
ORGANIZATION AND EXPLANATION OF CHILDRENS SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Aspects of Development Are Interdependent
Social Behavior Has Multiple Interacting Causes
All Causes Are Important
SOCIAL AGENTS AND CONTEXTS FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Social Behavior Is Influenced by Social Agents in Social Systems
Social Behavior Varies across Both Situations and Individuals
Social Development Occurs in a Cultural Context
Social Development Occurs in a Historical Context
Some Aspects of Social Development Are Universal
PROGRESS AND PATHWAYS OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Development May Be Gradual and Continuous or Rapid and Dramatic
Early Experience Is Important, But Its Effects Are Not Irreversible
There Is No Single Pathway to Normal or Abnormal Development
Tracing Both Normative Pathways and Individual Pathways Is Important
Development Is a Lifelong Process
GLIMPSING THE FUTURE: METHODOLOGICAL, THEORETICAL, AND
POLICY IMPERATIVES

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METHODOLOGICAL IMPERATIVES
Questions Take Priority over Methods
No Single Method Will Suffice
No Single Reporter Will Suffice
No Single Sample Will Suffice
THEORETICAL IMPERATIVES
No Single Theory Will Suffice
No Single Discipline Will Suffice
POLICY IMPERATIVES
Research on Social Development Can Inform Social Policy
Social Policy Can Inform Research on Social Development
One-Size-Fits-All Social Policies Are Inadequate
Social Development Is Everyone's Responsibility
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Learning Objectives
1. Summarize the take-home principles including that children are socially competent from an
early age, display socially organized behavior, display increasingly sophisticated social
behavior are embedded in levels of social complexity, and have interactions with others that
are reciprocal and transactional.
2. Understand that social development is associated and interdependent with other areas of
development and that all causal factors (e.g., biology, environment) are important.
3. Describe the agents of socialization and the social systems in which socialization occurs.
4. Understand that social behavior varies across individuals and situations, and that while social
development occurs in cultural and historical contexts, some aspects of social development are
universal.
5. Discus the process of social development as both continuous and discontinuous, as influenced
but not determined by early experience, and following many normative and individual
pathways across the lifespan.
6. Understand that good research in social development requires that we first have good
questions.
7. Describe the benefits of multiple methods, reporters, and samples for the study of social
development.
8. Understand the importance of collaboration across areas and perspectives of psychology and
across disciplines for the future of social development research.
9. Describe the important bidirectional relationship of policy and research.
10. Describe what is meant by one-size-fits-all policy and the shortcomings of this approach.
11. Recognize that social development is everyone’s responsibility.
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