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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Study Guide


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY313H5
Professor
Kathy Pichora- Fuller
Chapter
6

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Chapter 6 notes:
Health-Age Relations: A framework
-practically all countries around the world are on the edge of a major crisis in helath care.
-Several events or factors are coming together to create a potential catastrophe in health
care
-One factor is demographic: the fastest growing segment of the population is the
oldest-old (those individuals over the age of 85).This period of the life span is called the
fourth age. The oldest-old are known to have reduced reserve capacity for responding yo
health threats and thus are more vulnerable to the consequences of diseases and stress.
-Second factor is the critical aspect of the health care systems are substantially
ineffective. The quality of care and the availability of services are not up to the impeding
demands of supporting long term care. Systems of health care are influx, substantially
underfunded, suboptimal in quality of care and coverage, and inefficient in accessibility.
Doesnt provide the necessary coverage. Also reasons for concern about the availability of
informal support and family caregiving. There is a pressing need for a health care system in
which high-quality health care is available, affordable, and easily accessible for all who
need it.
-Some of the events that trigger a disease process, illness, or a change in health can occur
abruptly at any point are externally based
-example: an exposure to a virus or accident such as falling
-caused by: exposure to a specific external health
-effected by: social support, external resources or impediments
-Other events that trigger a disease process, or illness, or a change in health are relatively
gradual and internally based
-examples: cellular inflammation, atherosclerosis
-caused by: occurrences of internal threats to health (cell pathology)
-effected by: stress, health behaviors
-Four key characteristics of age-health relations are the following (from a developmental
perspective):
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1. Health is a lifelong process and is determined in various ways by interplay
between biogenetic processes and cultural or environmental influences.
2. Health is maintained or changed in part by actions and inactions of the individual.
Some or many actions and inactions that have consequences for health are under the
control of the individual to some extent, and some or many actions or inactions that have
health consequences are involuntary responses to stressful events aimed at restoration of
allostasis. Allostasis refers to maintaining stability through change, and efforts to cope
with stressful events can be volitional or systemic or involuntary
3.Health is multidimensional across the life span. The biophysiological, cognitive,
and social processes that affect developmental changes in health and disease operate at
multiple levels
4. Health refers to wellness as well as to diseases and illness. The definition of
health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being not merely the absence
of disease or infirmity.
-Prominent role for cultural and environmental factors: consequences of low socioeconomic
status (SES) and low educational attainments
-biogenetic cursors (nonnormative fetal development)
-both the biogenetic and cultural influences interact and particular points in early
development determine disease risk
Health Status of Older Adults
-The health of adults and older adults ahs improved in recent decades in terms of longevity,
self-reported health, and physical functioning.
Mortality and Life Expectancy
-declines in mortality rates have contributed to steady increase in life expectancy at birth.
-Chronic illnesses are the leading causes of deaths in older adults. Heart disease, cancer,
and stroke were the causes of 60% of all deaths of people age 65 or older. There have been
large decreases in deaths from circulatory diseases, especially heart disease and stroke.
-Mortality rates gave even declined for the oldest old.
-rates declined more slowly for blacks than whites
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-There is reason to expect that mortality rates associated with cancer will decrease in
future years if tobacco use continues to decline.
Hypertension
-The levels of elevated blood pressure (with or without medications) have declined for older
men but have increased for older women in recent years
Diabetes
-the prevalence of diabetes has increased in recent years
Cholestrol
-prevalence of high cholesterol among both men and women with or without medication)
has decelined steadily in the past decade, thank to cholesterol-lowering medications
Obesity
-BMI (body mass index) greater than or equal to 30.
-recently increasing in both men and women.
Self-rated General Health
-blacks most likely to report poor health, then Hispanics, then whites
-the rate of poor health reports by whites decreased.
Vaccination Rates
-Whites by far get more vaccinations than black or Hispanics
Mammography rates
-dramatically improved.
Hospital use
-increasing number of medical procedures are performed on an outpatient basis. The
average length of hospitals stays has steadily declined
Restorative Medical Procedures
-bypass surgery, angioplasty, knee and hip replacements
Prescription drug use
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