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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Guide

Course Code
Kathy Pichora- Fuller

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Chapter 5: Mental Health Interventions
% of adults with mental disorders < in older age groups compared to middle- and younger-aged adults
Age of onset for depression ^ other mental disorders more likely earlier in life than later
Mental health: state of successful mental functioning resulting in productive activities, fulfilling
relationships, ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity
Measures of prevalence, severity, durability of mental disorders are standard markers of mental health
in epidemiology
46% prevalence rate for suffering from one disorder, 28% two or more, 17% 3 or more
Age of first onset of mental disorders = usually adolescence, early adulthood
Median age for anxiety disorders & impulse control disorders much earlier than for substance use
disorders and mood disorders
Very narrow range for age of first onset for most disorders
% of those who experienced distress w/i last 30 days highest for 45-64, blacks
People with short version of gene 5-HTT more reactive to stressful events more vulnerable to
fMRI: age has negative association with activation in medal prefrontal cortex for happiness, positive
association with activation in medial prefrontal cortex for fear
ERP: age has negative association with early ERPs for happiness, positive association with later ERPs
for fear
Socioemotional selectivity theory: emotions and emotional functioning can be optimized by
individual choices and self-regulation emotional functions may improve with aging
oBetter stability predicted by shift toward greater medial prefrontal control over neg. emo events with
Diathesis-stress relationship: interplay b/w challenging life events (stressors) & individuals degree
of frailty or vulnerability (diathesis) - nonlinear relation b/w them (lowhigh)
For happiness, greater activation in amygdale, basal ganglia in younger adults. For fear, activation in
these regions greater in middle age.
Many creative, talented, gifted people experience manic-depressive and other disorders, esp. those in
creative arts (72%), but not in science, academic, or political eminence or in achievements linked with
precision, reason, logic than with emo expression, subjective experiences
Those who immigrated during childhood had higher prevalence of mental disorders in lifetime
Age at immigration affected age of onset later age, the later the onset
20% of Native American middle-school students attempted suicide, double rate of general teenage
Being an older adult and being male = 2 biggest risk factors for suicide highest rate for 65+ (highest
for divorced, widowed)
Excessive alcohol use = 3rd leading lifestyle-related cause of death
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