PSY344H5 Chapter 13: Chapter 13- Intimate Partner Violance

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7 Feb 2016
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Chapter 13 – Intimate Partner Violence
Domestic Violence: refers to any violence occurring between family
members
oDomestic violence wasn’t an issue till 1980’s
oFocus is on Spousal violence,
oViolence varies in terms of types, severity and includes physical,
sexual, "nancial and emotional abuse.
The scale used to determine domestic abuse is the Con&ict Tactics scale, the
scale determines altercations of abuse, consequences abuse and frequency
of abuse
oThe CTS has problems though such as the way that questions are
worded
the CTS focuses on how couples settle disputes but some cases
of violence aren’t precipitate by arguments
It doesn’t account for all forms of domestic violence on the scale
It doesn’t take in to account the context and consequences of
the same act for men and women
It doesn’t take in to account motive of violence, so o*ensive
violence and defensive violence are rated the same
Some clinicians argue that these criticisms are not based on the
CTS’s methodology but rather our disagreement from the values
that women can be responsible for domestic violence
A survey was conducted using the CTS and the results were:
o51% of women su*ered from physical or sexual violence after the age
of 16
oViolence was more common in previous partners than current partners
in younger people
oGay and lesbian couples were twice as likely and bisexuals were four
times as likely to su*er violence than heterosexual couples
oWomen are more likely to report being abused than men, women are
also more likely to get more severe abuse
In a study done by the International Dating Violence Study it was seen across
countries an average of 29.8% of any assaults, 5.8% serious assaults and
21.5% of sexual coercion by their dating partners
Being involved with early on dating violence creates a trend for new
relationships to be toxic as well
Patriarchy is the idea that purports theories, beliefs and values that support
dominance of females
A study was done in which states were measured based on their amount of
sexual assault cases and the likelihood of systemic patriarchy in that state
oStates with higher patriarchies saw more spousal abuse cases
oHowever rates of patriarchy don’t help determine which people in that
state will commit spousal abuse, it is in fact necessary to asses that
individual’s community, family and individual beliefs
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Social learning Theory
Bandura created social learning theory which focuses on origins, instigators
and regulators of aggression
oYou get these through observational learning which is determined
through family of origins, subculture in which one lives in and televised
violence
oIn order for learning theory to work you must be observing something
which holds functional value for you
oBehaviour that is rewarded increases in occurrence and behaviours
that are punished decrease
oThese behaviours only manifest themselves if an important aspect in
the environment stimulates the behaviour
This is called instigating
Domestic assaulters have two types of instigators
Aversive instigating: produce emotional response and how
other people categorize the response in&uence how the
instigators respond
Incentive instigating: is when one manifests rewards for
engaging in aggression
oSocial learning theory assumes that behaviour is regulated by its
consequences of External Punishment (being arrested) Self-
Punishment (feeling remorse for committing violence)
oIf consequences outweigh the rewards of abuse and if alternatives are
provided to cope with instigators the likelihood of violence should
diminish
Another way to conceptualize the violent intimate relationships between
factors is through the Nested Ecological Model (Dutton, 1995).
oThis model looked at the relationship among the multiple levels that
in&uence domestic violence
Macro system: this level considers the widespread societal and
cultural beliefs such as patriarchy
Ecosystem: Considers the societal factors that in&uence an
individual to commit intimate violence such as job stress may
lead to aggression then violence
Microsystem : Immediate environment in which abuse occurs,
the couple’s pattern of communication
Ontogenic Level: psychological and biological aspects of the
individual such as abuse history
oThis model is good because it looks at the importance of explaining
phenomenon through many levels and spheres
Why do Battered Women Stay
Women feel that they will be blamed for their victimization because of the
many myths about domestic abuse for ex. They like being abused
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