PSY345H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Eugenics, Medical Model

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11 Apr 2013
Chapter One- Understanding Exceptionalities in the 21 st
Franklin Roosevelt was disabled with polio
Aristotle said children with disabilities shouldn’t be allowed to live
Disabled children were prone to infanticide, abandonment & physical abuse
Infanticide- looked at as a means of controlling population growth
Early Greeks & Romans – practiced Eugenics – discourages people with genetic
defects to reproduce; also exterminated mentally and physically disabled
20th century’s contradictions:
Education and treatment became more accessible
On the other hand, societal view of disabilities became more negative.
Parents were blamed for genetic inferiority of children and people were
scared of disabilities passing from one gen to another
Enforcement of Blue Laws – prohibiting mental people from marrying
Sterilization- surgically disabling one from reproducing
Section 504 Americans with Disabilities Act [ADA] legislation that
provides mandate to end discrimination against disabled people in private sector
employment, transportation & public accommodations.
Civil Rights Act of 1964- prohibits discrimination on basis of race, sex, religion
or nationality
How ADA defines a person with disability:
Physical/mental impairment that substantially limits him/her in some
major life activity
Having experienced discrimination because of this impairment
Reasonable accommodations- ensures disabled people have a fair chance of
participation. Ex: transportation, employment, telecommunications & government
Disorder- general abnormality in mental, physical or psychological functioning
Disability- more specific than a disorder; associated with loss of physical
functioning [loss of sight/hearing] OR difficulty in learning and social adjustment
that interferes with growth & development
Handicap- limitation imposed on a person by the environment and the person’s
capacity to cope with it
Exceptional- individual whose mental/physical/behavioral performance deviates
from the average [higher OR lower]
Positive OR negative
Labels communicate whether a person meets expectations of the culture
Same label could have different meanings within a culture. Ex: a student
who always follows rules is labeled by her teachers as being ‘conformist’
[positive label] BUT her class-mates think she’s a ‘brown-noser’ [negative
Labels are based on ideas NOT facts
They help identify specific needs of a particular group of people
Three approaches to describe Human Differences
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