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Chapter 1

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Dax Urbszat

Oct42003 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 1: THEE VOLUTION OFP SYCHOLOGY I. From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed A. A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt & Hall 1. psyche soul logos study of (Greek roots) 2. Defined in 16th Century, yet not popular till early 18th century. 3. Born out of philosophy and physiology movement led by Wilhelm Wundt a. 1879 1st Formal Lab for Psych research, Univ of Leipzig b. 1881 Wundt starts 1st psych journal c. Wundt known as father of psych d. According to Wundt, psych should be a science. Focus on consciousness. Psych became the scientific study of conscious experience. 4. Hall, G Stanley studied briefly with Wundt, contributor to American Psych. a. Established first American research lab John Hopkins (1883) b. Launched Americans 1st Journal (1887) c. 1892 Became 1st president of APA. B. The Battle of the Schools Begins Structuralism vs. Functionalism. 1. Structuralism led by English Edward Tichener (studied in the States though) a. Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements relate. i. Wanted to identify and examine fundamentals of consciousness, like sensations, feelings, and images. b. Most work centered around sensation and perception in vision, hearing and touch. c. Relied on introspection careful, systematic, self observation of ones own conscious experience. i. Required training to make subject m ore aware and objective ii. One trained, exposed to auditory tones, optical illusions, and visual stimuli under carefully controlled and systematically varied conditions. Then asked to analyze what they experienced. 2. Functionalism based on the belief that psychology should investigate the functionpurpose of consciousness, not the structure. Led by American William James. a. Author of Principles of Psych (1890) most influential work b. Believed psych is embedded in network of culture and intellectual influences. c. Influenced by Darwin, natural selection heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations, and thus become selected over time (i.e. typical characteristics of a species must serve a purpose.) d. Argued that consciousness was flow of thoughts and structuralists examined only static points. 15 www.notesolution.com
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