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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 summary

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Dax Urbszat

Jan62004 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER11: H UMAN D EVELOPMENT A CROSS THEL IFESPAN I. Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development A. Introduction 1. Development the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death. Incl both biological and behavioral changes. 2. Zygote a one celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg. 3. Prenatal Period period from conception to birth, aprox. 9 months, marked by rapid development, until tapering off before birth. B. The Course of Prenatal Development 1. Germinal Stage first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first 2 weeks after conception. a. Begins when zygote is created through fertilization. b. Placenta structure that allows oxygen and other nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mothers bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother. Takes place during implantation process. 2. Embryonic Stage second stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 weeks until the end of the second month. a. Most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing organism known as an embryo. b. Heart, spine, brain form 3. Fetal Stage the 3rd stage of prenatal development, lasting from 2 months through birth. a. Rapid bodily growth, muscles and bones begin to form. b. Known as a fetus. c. Age of Viability the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth (i.e. 22-26 weeks) C. Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development 1. Maternal Nutrition severe maternal malnutrition can lead to increases in the birth complications and neurological defects of a newborn. 2. Maternal Drug Use major source of concern about fetal and infant well being, as many drugs consumed by a pregnant women can be passed on to the placenta. a. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. Incl. hyperactivity, retarded mental and motor development. 3. Maternal Illness fetus is defenseless against infections because its immune system matures relatively late in the prenatal period. May incl. AIDS, Flu, etc. 4. Prenatal Health Care good quality medical care that begins early in pregnancy is associated with reduce prematurity and higher survival rates for infants. II. The Wondrous Years of Childhood A. Exploring the World: Motor Development 1. Motor Development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities. 18 www.notesolution.com
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