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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 summary

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Dax Urbszat

Jan62004 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 12: PERSONALITY: THEORY , RESEARCH ,AND A SSESSMENT I. The Nature of Personality A. Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness 1. Concept of personality is used to explain: a. Stability in a persons behavior over time (consistency) b. The behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness) 2. Personality an individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits. B. Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions 1. Personality Trait durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations. i.e. honesty, dependable, moody, etc. 2. Factor Analysis correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables. C. The Five Factor Model of Personality Traits (McCrae and Costa) 1. Extraversion people who score high are characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive and gregarious. Positive Emotionality. 2. Neuroticism people tend to be highly anxious, hostile, self conscious, insecure and vulnerable. Negative Emotionality 3. Openness to Experience associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes. 4. Agreeableness tend to be sympathetic trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward. 5. Conscientiousness tend to be diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual, and dependable. Constraint. Higher productivity 6. Maintain that personality can be described adequately be measuring the basic traits that theyve identified. II. Psychodynamic Perspectives A. Introduction 1. Psychodynamic theories incl. all the diverse theories descended from the work of Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces. B. Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory 1. Psychoanalytic Theory attempts to explain personality, motivation and psych disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, unconscious motives and conflicts, and methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges. a. Opponents people control their own minds, people are masters of their destinies, conservative sex values of time. 2. Structure of Personality divided personality structure into 4 components and saw persons behavior as the outcome of interactions among those 3 components a. Id primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle. i.e. eating. i. Operates according to the pleasure principle demands immediate gratification of its urges. 15 www.notesolution.com
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