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Psychology (1,867)
PSY100Y5 (787)
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Chapter 8

textbook chapter 8 summary

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

Nov22003 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 5: VARIATIONS INC ONSCIOUSNESS Chapter 5 Variations in Consciousness - Rapid eye movements during sleep has a connection with dreams - Rapid eye movement sleep blossomed into a number of other fascinating insights about what goes on in the brain during sleep - We cannot directly observe anothers consciousness On the Nature of Consciousness - consciousness is the awareness of internal and external stimuli - conscious includes 1) your awareness of external events, 2) your awareness of your internal sensation, 3) your awareness of your self as the unique being having these experiences and 4) your awareness of your thoughts about these experiences - contents of your consciousness are continually changing Variations in Levels of Awareness - Conscious and unconscious processes are different levels of awareness (Sigmend Freud) - Research shows that people continue to maintain some awareness during sleep and even when they are put under anesthesia for surgery. The Evolutionary Roots of Consciousness - consciousness allowed our ancestors to think through courses of action and their consequences - evolutionary bases of consciousness remain indefinable Consciousness and Brain Activity - consciousness does not arise from any distinct structure in the brain but rather from activity in distributed networks of neural pathways - Electroencephalograph(EEG) summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain in terms of line tracings called brain waves. - Brain wave activity divided into 4 brands: beta (13-24 cps), alpha (8-12 cps), theta (4-7cps), and delta (under 4 cps). - Change in EEG activity are closely related to variations in consciousness - Variations in consciousness are correlated with variations in brain activity. Biological Rhythms and Sleep 114 www.notesolution.comNov22003 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 5: VARIATIONS INC ONSCIOUSNESS - Biological rhythms are periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning - Existence of these rhythms means that organisms have internal biological clocks that somehow monitor the passage of time The Role of Circadian Rhythms - Circadian rhythms are the 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species - Body temperature varies rhythmically in a daily cycle, usually peaking in the afternoon and reaching its low point in the depths of the night - As body temperature drops people sleep and as it ascends they awaken - Circadian rhythms in humans actually appear to be regulated by several internal clocks, but the central pacemaker clearly is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Ignoring Circadian Rhythms - when you ignore your biological clock and go to sleep at an unusual time the quality of your sleep suffers - chronic jet lag is when you travel to places and your biological clock does not change; this is associated with measurable deficits in cognitive performance - Readjustment depends on the direction traveled, and its easier to fly westward and lengthen your day than it is to fly eastward and shorten it. - Workers get less total sleep and poorer quality sleep when they go on rotating shifts Melatonin and Circadian Rhythms - promising line of research has focused on giving people small doses of the hormone melatonin, which appears to regulate the human biological clock - Melatonin can facilitate daytime naps but may have limited value in the treatment of night-time insomnia. - Medical experts are worried that health food stores are encouraging people to take excessive doses of an untested drug that can raise melatonin levels in the blood to 1,000 times higher than normal The Sleep and Waking Cycle - Researchers in a sleep laboratory can observe subjects while using elaborate equipment to record physiological changes during sleep. - This kind of research has disclosed that sleep is a complex series of physical and mental states 214 www.notesolution.com
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